Paper | Original Paper


*Tokuro Hata, Raphaëlle Delagrange, Tomonori Arakawa, Sanghyun Lee, Richard Deblock, Hélène Bouchiat, Kensuke Kobayashi, and *Meydi Ferrier,
Enhanced shot noise of multiple Andreev reflections in a carbon nanotube quantum dot in SU(2) and SU(4) Kondo regimes,
Physical Review Letters, in press.

[Summary] The sensitivity of shot noise to the interplay between Kondo correlations and superconductivity is investigated in a carbon nanotube quantum dot connected to superconducting electrodes. Depending on the gate voltage, the SU(2) and SU(4) Kondo unitary regimes can be clearly identified. We observe enhancement of the shot noise via the Fano factor in the superconducting state. Its divergence at low bias voltage, which is more pronounced in the SU(4) regime than in the SU(2) one, is larger than what is expected from proliferation of multiple Andreev reflections predicted by the existing theories. Our result suggests that Kondo effect is responsible for this strong enhancement.

*Taro P. Shimizu and Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
Measuring Lyapunov exponents of large chaotic systems with global coupling by time series analysis,
Chaos 28, 121103/1-6 (2018).

[Summary] Despite the prominent importance of the Lyapunov exponents for characterizing chaos, it still remains a challenge to measure them for large experimental systems, mainly because of the lack of recurrences in time series analysis. Here we develop a method to overcome this difficulty, valid for highly symmetric systems such as systems with global coupling for which the dimensionality of recurrence analysis can be reduced drastically. We test our method numerically with two globally coupled systems, namely, logistic maps and limit-cycle oscillators with global coupling. The evaluated exponent values are successfully compared with the true ones obtained by the standard numerical method. We also describe a few techniques to improve the accuracy of the proposed method.

*Yuliang Jin, Pierfrancesco Urbani, Francesco Zamponi, *Hajime Yoshino,
A stability-reversibility map unifies elasticity, plasticity, yielding and jamming in hard sphere glasses,
Science Advances 4, eaat6387 (2018).

[Summary] Amorphous solids, such as glasses, have complex responses to deformations, with significant consequences in material design and applications. In this respect two intertwined aspects are important: stability and reversibility. It is crucial to understand on the one hand how a glass may become unstable due to increased plasticity under shear deformations; on the other hand, to what extent the response is reversible, meaning how much a system is able to recover the original configuration once the perturbation is released. By focusing on dense assemblies of hard spheres as the simplest model of amorphous solids, we exhaustively map out the stability and reversibility of glass states under normal and shear strains, using extensive numerical simulations. The region on the normal-shear strain phase diagram where the original glass state remains solid is bounded by the shear-yielding and the shear-jamming lines which meet at a yielding-jamming crossover point. This solid phase can be further divided into two sub-phases: the stable glass phase where the system deforms purely elastically and is totally reversible, and the marginal glass phase where it experiences stochastic plastic deformations at mesoscopic scales and is partially irreversible. The details of the stability-reversibility map depend strongly on the quality of annealing of the glass. This study provides a unified framework for understanding elasticity, plasticity, yielding and jamming in amorphous solids.

*Akito Noiri, Takashi Nakajima, Jun Yoneda, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Peter Stano, Tomohiro Otsuka, Kenta Takeda, Shinichi Amaha, Giles Allison, Kento Kawasaki, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and Seigo Tarucha,
A fast quantum interface between different spin qubit encodings,
Nature Communications 9, 5066/1-7 (2018).

[Summary] Single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots hold promise for universal quantum computation with demonstrations of a high single-qubit gate fidelity above 99.9% and two-qubit gates in conjunction with a long coherence time. However, initialization and readout of a qubit is orders of magnitude slower than control, which is detrimental for implementing measurement-based protocols such as error-correcting codes. In contrast, a singlet-triplet qubit, encoded in a two-spin subspace, has the virtue of fast readout with high fidelity. Here, we present a hybrid system which benefits from the different advantages of these two distinct spin-qubit implementations. A quantum interface between the two codes is realized by electrically tunable inter-qubit exchange coupling. We demonstrate a controlled-phase gate that acts within 5.5 ns, much faster than the measured dephasing time of 211 ns. The presented hybrid architecture will be useful to settle remaining key problems with building scalable spin-based quantum computers.

Misaki Ozawa, Atsushi Ikeda, Kunimasa Miyazaki, and *Walter Kob,
Ideal Glass States Are Not Purely Vibrational: Insight from Randomly Pinned Glasses,
Physical Review Letters 121, 205501 (2018).

[Summary] We use computer simulations to probe the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of a glass former that undergoes an ideal glass transition because of the presence of randomly pinned particles. We find that even deep in the equilibrium glass state, the system relaxes to some extent because of the presence of localized excitations that allow the system to access different inherent structures, thus giving rise to a nontrivial contribution to the entropy. By calculating with high accuracy the vibrational part of the entropy, we show that also in the equilibrium glass state thermodynamics and dynamics give a coherent picture, and that glasses should not be seen as a disordered solid in which the particles undergo just vibrational motion but instead as a system with a highly nonlinear internal dynamics.

*Kenta Takeda, Jun Yoneda, Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Giles Allison, Yusuke Hoshi, Noritaka Usami, Kohei M. Itoh, Shunri Oda, Tetsuo Kodera, and Seigo Tarucha,
Optimized electrical control of a Si/SiGe spin qubit in the presence of an induced frequency shift,
npj Quantum Information 4, 54/1-6 (2018).

[Summary] Electron spins confined in quantum dots are an attractive system to realize high-fidelity qubits owing to their long coherence time. With the prolonged spin coherence time, however, the control fidelity can be limited by systematic errors rather than decoherence, making characterization and suppression of their influence crucial for further improvement. Here we report that the control fidelity of Si/SiGe spin qubits can be limited by the microwave-induced frequency shift of electric dipole spin resonance and it can be improved by optimization of control pulses. As we increase the control microwave amplitude, we observe a shift of the qubit resonance frequency, in addition to the increasing Rabi frequency. We reveal that this limits control fidelity with a conventional amplitude-modulated microwave pulse below 99.8%. In order to achieve a gate fidelity >99.9%, we introduce a quadrature control method, and validate this approach experimentally by randomized benchmarking. Our finding facilitates realization of an ultra-high-fidelity qubit with electron spins in quantum dots.

*Takumi Ito, Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Shinichi Amaha, Jun Yoneda, Kenta Takeda, Akito Noiri, Giles Allison, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and Seigo Tarucha,
Four single-spin Rabi oscillations in a quadruple quantum dot,
Applied Physics Letters 113, 093102/1-5 (2018).

[Summary] Scaling up qubits is a necessary step to realize useful systems of quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate coherent manipulations of four individual electron spins using a micro-magnet method in each dot of a quadruple quantum dot—the largest number of dots used for the single spin control in multiple quantum dots. We observe Rabi oscillations for each dot through electron spin resonance, evaluate the spin-electric coupling of the four dots, and finally discuss practical approaches to independently address single spins in multiple quantum dot systems containing even more quantum dots.

Kunimasa Miyazaki, Yohei Nakayama, Hiromichi Matsuyama,
Entropy anomaly and linear irreversible thermodynamics,
Physical Review E 98, 022101 (2018).

[Summary] The irreversible currents and entropy production rate of a dilute colloidal suspension are calculated using linear irreversible thermodynamics and the linear response theory. The “anomalous” or “hidden” entropy that has been the subject of recent discussion in the context of stochastic thermodynamics is fully accounted for in these classical frameworks. We show that the two distinct formulations lead to identical results as long as the local equilibrium assumption, or equivalently, the linear response theory, is valid.

*Hajime Yoshino,
Disorder-free spin glass transitions and jamming in exactly solvable mean-field models,
SciPost Physics 4, 40 (2018).

[Summary] We construct and analyze a family of M-component vectorial spin systems which exhibit glass transitions and jamming within supercooled paramagnetic states without quenched randomness. Our system is defined on lattices with connectivity c=αM and becomes exactly solvable in the limit of large number of components M→∞. We consider generic p-body interactions between the vectorial Ising/continuous spins with linear/non-linear potentials. The existence of self-generated randomness is demonstrated by showing that the random energy model is recovered from a M-component ferromagnetic p-spin Ising model in M→∞ and p→∞ limit. In our systems the quenched randomness, if present, and the self-generated randomness act additively. Our theory provides a unified mean-field theoretical framework for glass transitions of rotational degree of freedoms such as orientation of molecules in glass forming liquids, color angles in continuous coloring of graphs and vector spins of geometrically frustrated magnets. The rotational glass transitions accompany various types of replica symmetry breaking. In the case of repulsive hardcore interactions in the spin space, continuous the criticality of the jamming or SAT/UNSTAT transition becomes the same as that of hardspheres

Zeying Che, Jan de Gier, Iori Hiki, *Tomohiro Sasamoto,
Exact confirmation of 1D nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics for a two-species exclusion process,
Physical Review Letters 120, 240601 (2018).

[Summary] We consider current statistics for a two species exclusion process of particles hopping in opposite directions on a one-dimensional lattice. We derive an exact formula for the Green’s function as well as for a joint current distribution of the model, and study its long time behavior. For a step type initial condition, we show that the limiting distribution is a product of the Gaussian and the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution. This is the first analytic confirmation for a multi-component system of a prediction from the recently proposed non-linear fluctuating hydrodynamics for one dimensional systems.

*Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Tomohiro Otsuka, Shinichi Amaha, Jun Yoneda, Akito Noiri, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and Seigo Tarucha,
Coherent transfer of electron spin correlations assisted by dephasing noise,
Nature Communications 9, 2133/1-8 (2018).

[Summary] Quantum coherence of superposed states, especially of entangled states, is indispensable for many quantum technologies. However, it is vulnerable to environmental noises, posing a fundamental challenge in solid-state systems including spin qubits. Here we show a scheme of entanglement engineering where pure dephasing assists the generation of quantum entanglement at distant sites in a chain of electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots. One party of an entangled spin pair, prepared at a single site, is transferred to the next site and then adiabatically swapped with a third spin using a transition across a multi-level avoided crossing. This process is accelerated by the noise-induced dephasing through a variant of the quantum Zeno effect, without sacrificing the coherence of the entangled state. Our finding brings insight into the spin dynamics in open quantum systems coupled to noisy environments, opening an avenue to quantum state manipulation utilizing decoherence effects.

*Shota Norimoto, Shuji Nakamura, Yuma Okazaki, Tomonori Arakawa, Kenichi Asano, Koji Onomitsu, Kensuke Kobayashi, and Nobu-hisa Kaneko,,
Fano effect in the transport of an artificial molecule,
Physical Review B 97, 195313/1-8 (2018).

[Summary] The Fano effect is a ubiquitous phenomenon arising from interference between a discrete energy state and an energy continuum. We explore this effect in an artificial molecule, namely, two lateral quantum dots (QDs) fabricated from a two-dimensional electron gas system and coupled in series. When the coupling between the leads and QDs is small, the charge stability diagram of the system shows a honeycomb lattice structure that is characteristic of a double QD system. As the coupling increases, a honeycomb structure consisting of the Fano resonances emerges. A numerical simulation based on the T-matrix method can satisfactorily reproduce our experimental observation. This report constitutes a clear example of the ubiquitous nature of the Fano effect in mesoscopic transport.

Toru Yoshizawa, Eiki Iyoda, and Takahiro Sagawa,,
Numerical Large Deviation Analysis of the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis,
Physical Review Letters 120, 200604/1-6 (2018).

Kota Mitsumoto and *Hajime Yoshino,
Orientational ordering of closely packed Janus particles,
Soft Matter 14, 3919-3928 (2018).

[Summary] We study the orientational ordering of 2-dimensional closely packed Janus particles by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. For smaller patch sizes, the system remains in the plastic crystal phase where the rotational degrees of freedom are disordered down to the lowest temperatures. There the liquid consists of dimers and trimers of the attractive patches. For large enough patch sizes, the system exhibits a thermodynamic transition into a phase with the stripe patterns of the patches breaking the three-fold rotational symmetry. Our results strongly suggest that the latter is a 2nd order phase transition whose universality is the same as that of the 3-state Potts model in 2-dimensions. Furthermore we analyzed the relaxation dynamics of the system performing quenching simulations on the stripe phase. We found growth of the domains of the stripes. The relaxation of key dynamical quantities follows universal scaling features in terms of the domain size.

*Takahisa Fukadai and Tomohiro Sasamoto,
Transient Dynamics of Double Quantum Dots Coupled to Two Reservoirs,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 87, 054006/1-22 (2018).

[Summary] We study the time-dependent properties of double quantum dots coupled to two reservoirs using the nonequilibrium Green function method. For an arbitrary time-dependent bias, we derive an expression for the time-dependent electron density of a dot and several cur- rents, including the current between the dots in the wide-band-limit approximation. For the special case of a constant bias, we calculate the electron density and the currents numerically. As a result, we find that these quantities oscillate and that the number of crests in a single period of the current from a dot changes with the bias voltage. We also obtain an analytical expression for the relaxation time, which expresses how fast the system converges to its steady state. From the expression, we find that the relaxation time becomes constant when the coupling strength between the dots is sufficiently large in comparison with the difference of coupling strength between the dots and the reservoirs.

Eiki Iyoda and Takahiro Sagawa,,
Scrambling of quantum information in quantum many-body systems,
Physical Review A 97, 042330/1-9 (2018).

Yasufumi Ito and *Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
When fast and slow interfaces grow together: connection to the half-space problem of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang class,
Physical Review E 97, 040103(R)/1-6 (2018).

[Summary] We study height fluctuations of interfaces in the $(1+1)$-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class, growing at different speeds in the left half and the right half of space. Carrying out simulations of the discrete polynuclear growth model with two different growth rates, combined with the standard setting for the droplet, flat, and stationary geometries, we find that the fluctuation properties at and near the boundary are described by the KPZ half-space problem developed in the theoretical literature. In particular, in the droplet case, the distribution at the boundary is given by the largest-eigenvalue distribution of random matrices in the Gaussian symplectic ensemble, often called the GSE Tracy-Widom distribution. We also characterize crossover from the full-space statistics to the half-space one, which arises when the difference between the two growth speeds is small.

Takumi Matsumoto and Takahiro Sagawa,,
Role of sufficient statistics in stochastic thermodynamics and its implication to sensory adaptation,
Physical Review E 97, 042103/1-11 (2018).

Kay Brandner, Taro Hanazato, *Keiji Saito,
Thermodynamic Bounds on Precision in Ballistic Multi-Terminal Transport,
Physical Review Letters 120, 090601/1-5 (2018).

Hiroki Taniguchi, Shota Suzuki, Tomonori Arakawa, Hiroyuki Yoshida, *Yasuhiro Niimi, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Fabrication of thin films of two-dimensional triangular antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2 and their transport properties,
AIP Advances 8, 025010/1-6 (2018).

[Summary] We fabricated 100 nm thick films of two-dimensional triangular antiferromagnet Ag2CrO2 using the mechanical exfoliation technique, and performed the transport measurements down to 5 K. As in the case of polycrystalline samples, a large reduction of the resistivity due to the antiferromagnetic ordering was clearly observed at around 25 K. Surprisingly, the resistivity for the thin films is one order magnitude smaller than that for the polycrystalline samples, indicating that the crystalline nature is much better in the former than in the latter. The present result sheds new light on the use of atomic-layer antiferromagnetic materials for device applications.

*Takaki Yamamoto and Masaki Sano,
Theoretical model of chirality-induced helical self-propulsion,
Physical Review E 97, 012607/1-11 (2018).

[Summary] We recently reported the experimental realization of a chiral artificial microswimmer exhibiting helical selfpropulsion[T. Yamamoto and M. Sano, Soft Matter 13, 3328 (2017)]. In the experiment, cholesteric liquidcrystal (CLC) droplets dispersed in surfactant solutions swam spontaneously, driven by the Marangoni flow, inhelical paths whose handedness is determined by the chirality of the component molecules of CLC. To studythe mechanism of the emergence of the helical self-propelled motion, we propose a phenomenological modelof the self-propelled helical motion of the CLC droplets. Our model is constructed by symmetry argument inchiral systems, and it describes the dynamics of CLC droplets with coupled time-evolution equations in termsof a velocity, an angular velocity, and a tensor variable representing the symmetry of the helical director field ofthe droplet. We found that helical motions as well as other chiral motions appear in our model. By investigatingbifurcation behaviors between each chiral motion, we found that the chiral coupling terms between the velocityand the angular velocity, the structural anisotropy of the CLC droplet, and the nonlinearity of model equationsplay a crucial role in the emergence of the helical motion of the CLC droplet.

Daiki Nishiguchi, Junichiro Iwasawa, Hong-Ren Jiang and Masaki Sano,
Flagellar dynamics of chains of active Janus particles fueled by an AC electric field,
New Journal of Physics 20, 015002/1-14 (2018).

[Summary] We study the active dynamics of self-propelled asymmetrical colloidal particles(Janus particles) fueledby an AC electric field. Both the speed and direction of the self-propulsion, and the strength of theattractive interaction between particles can be controlled by tuning the frequency of the appliedelectric field and the ion concentration of the solution. The strong attractive force at high ionconcentration gives rise to chain formation of the Janus particles, which can be explained by thequadrupolar charge distribution on the particles. Chain formation is observed irrespective of thedirection of the self-propulsion of the particles. When both the position and the orientation ofthe heads of the chains are fixed, they exhibit beating behavior reminiscent of eukaryotic flagella. Thebeating frequency of the chains of Janus particles depends on the applied voltage and thus on the selfpropulsiveforce. The scaling relation between the beating frequency and the self-propulsive forcedeviates from theoretical predictions made previously on active filaments. However, this discrepancyis resolved by assuming that the attractive interaction between the particles is mediated by thequadrupolar distribution of the induced charges, which gives indirect but convincing evidence on themechanisms of the Janus particles. This signifies that the dependence between the propulsionmechanism and the interaction mechanism, which had been dismissed previously, can modify thedispersion relations of beating behaviors. In addition, hydrodynamic interaction within the chain, andits effect on propulsion speed, are discussed. These provide new insights into active filaments, such asoptimal flagellar design for biological functions.


Naoko Nakagawa and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Liquid-Gas Transitions in Steady Heat Conduction,
Physical Review Letters 119, 260602/1-6 (2017).

[Summary] We study liquid-gas transitions of heat conduction systems in contact with two heat baths under constant pressure in the linear response regime. On the basis of local equilibrium thermodynamics, we propose an equality with a global temperature, which determines the volume near the equilibrium liquid-gas transition. We find that the formation of the liquid-gas interface is accompanied by a discontinuous change in the volume when increasing the mean temperature of the baths. A supercooled gas near the interface is observed as a stable steady state.

Kazuya Kaneko, Eiki Iyoda, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Saturation of entropy production in quantum many-body systems,
Physical Review E 96, 062148/1-10 (2017).

[Summary] Bridging the second law of thermodynamics and microscopic reversible dynamics has been a longstanding problem in statistical physics. Here, we address this problem on the basis of quantum many-body physics, and discuss how the entropy production saturates in isolated quantum systems under unitary dynamics. First, we rigorously prove that the entropy production does indeed saturate in the long time regime, even when the total system is in a pure state. Second, we discuss the non-negativity of the entropy production at saturation, implying the second law of thermodynamics. This is based on the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, which states that even a single energy eigenstate is thermal. We also numerically demonstrate that the entropy production saturates at a non-negative value even when the initial state of a heat bath is a single energy eigenstate. Our results reveal fundamental properties of the entropy production in isolated quantum systems at late times.


*Jun Yoneda, Kenta Takeda, Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Giles Allison, Takumu Honda, Tetsuo Kodera, Shunri Oda, Yusuke Hoshi, Noritaka Usami, Kohei M. Itoh, and Seigo Tarucha,
A quantum-dot spin qubit with coherence limited by charge noise and fidelity higher than 99.9%,
Nature Nanotechnology 13, 102-106 (2018).

[Summary] The isolation of qubits from noise sources, such as surrounding nuclear spins and spin–electric susceptibility, has enabled extensions of quantum coherence times in recent pivotal advances towards the concrete implementation of spin-based quantum computation. In fact, the possibility of achieving enhanced quantum coherence has been substantially doubted for nanostructures due to the characteristic high degree of background charge fluctuations. Still, a sizeable spin–electric coupling will be needed in realistic multiple-qubit systems to address single-spin and spin–spin manipulations. Here, we realize a single-electron spin qubit with an isotopically enriched phase coherence time (20 μs) and fast electrical control speed (up to 30 MHz) mediated by extrinsic spin–electric coupling. Using rapid spin rotations, we reveal that the free-evolution dephasing is caused by charge noise—rather than conventional magnetic noise—as highlighted by a 1/f spectrum extended over seven decades of frequency. The qubit exhibits superior performance with single-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% on average, offering a promising route to large-scale spin-qubit systems with fault-tolerant controllability.


Isala Dueramae, Shingo Fukuzawa, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara, *Rio Kita,
Dynamics of amyloid-like aggregation and gel formation of hen egg-white lysozyme in highly concentrated ethanol solution,
Journal of Biorheology 31, 21-28 (2017).

[Summary] We investigated the mechanisms of amyloidlike aggregation and gel formation in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) in a mixed solvent comprising 90% v/v ethanol in water using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism CD. The mechanism of HEWL in ethanol aqueous solution is interpreted into three stages as: (I) denaturation of HEWL; (II) elongation of amyloid fibrils composed of β-sheet-rich HEWL by lateral aggregation; and (III) gel formation due to the creation of junctions in amyloid fibrils. The transformation of sol to gel can be confirmed by: (1) the oscillation behavior and the rapid increase in the intensity of scattered light; (2) the power-law behavior of the correlation function of scattered light g(2)(t); (3) the appearance of a long-time tail in the distribution function of the decay time G(τ); and (4) the beginning of the reduction in initial amplitude in g(2)(t). The gelation rate was strongly dependent on the protein concentration. The estimated rod length of the amyloid fibrils increased significantly over time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) performed on the formation of fibrils in the HEWL gels revealed that the structure was highly heterogeneous, with areas characterized by dense fiber networks interspersed with loose network areas.

*Akito Noiri, Tatsuki Takakura, Toshiaki Obata, Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Jun Yoneda, and Seigo Tarucha,
Cotunneling spin blockade observed in a three-terminal triple quantum dot,
Physical Review B 96, 155414/1-7 (2017).

[Summary] We prepare a triple quantum dot with a separate contact lead to each dot to study Pauli spin blockade in the tunnel-coupled three dots in a row. We measure the tunneling current flowing between the center dot and either the left or right dot with the left and right leads as a common source and the center lead as a drain. In the biased stability diagram, we establish Pauli spin blockade in the respective neighboring dots, with features similarly obtained in double-quantum-dot systems. We further realize Pauli spin blockade with two different conditions by tuning the interdot coupling gates: strong and weak interdot tunnel coupling regimes. In the strong-coupling regime we observe significant suppression of cotunneling through the respective double dots due to Pauli spin blockade. We reveal the influence from the third dot in the triple-dot device on this cotunneling Pauli spin blockade and clarify that the cotunneling Pauli spin blockade is lifted by the resonant coupling of excited states to the third dot level as well as spin exchange of the left and right dots with the adjacent reservoir.

*Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Shinichi Amaha, Jun Yoneda, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Peter Stano, Akito Noiri, Takumi Ito, Daniel Loss, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and *Seigo Tarucha,
Higher-order spin and charge dynamics in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system,
Scientific Reports 7, 12201-1-7 (2017).

[Summary] Understanding the dynamics of open quantum systems is important and challenging in basic physics and applications for quantum devices and quantum computing. Semiconductor quantum dots offer a good platform to explore the physics of open quantum systems because we can tune parameters including the coupling to the environment or leads. Here, we apply the fast single-shot measurement techniques from spin qubit experiments to explore the spin and charge dynamics due to tunnel coupling to a lead in a quantum dot-lead hybrid system. We experimentally observe both spin and charge time evolution via first- and second-order tunneling processes, and reveal the dynamics of the spin-flip through the intermediate state. These results enable and stimulate the exploration of spin dynamics in dot-lead hybrid systems, and may offer useful resources for spin manipulation and simulation of open quantum systems.

Shuji Tamaki, Makiko Sasada, and *Keiji Saito,
Heat Transport via Low-Dimensional Systems with Broken Time-Reversal Symmetry,
Physical Review Letters 119, 110602 (2017).

*Hironori Hoshino, Shin Nakamura,
Phenomenological construction of new dictionaries for holographic conductors,
Physical Review D 96, 066006/1-10 (2017).

[Summary] We propose new dictionaries for holographic conductors that enable us to compute carrier densities andmean velocities of charge carriers in the system. The carrier density, which differs from the charge density,is the total number density of both the positive and the negative charge carriers. The mean velocity is themean value of the velocities of all charge carriers. These quantities are not conjugate to the sources that aregiven by boundary values of bulk fields, and we cannot compute them by using the conventional method inholography. In the present work, we introduce a phenomenological model of charge transport, and weestablish the dictionary by comparing the results of the phenomenological model and those from theholography. We show that the mean velocity agrees with the velocity of an analog black hole on theworldvolume of the probe D-brane, and it can be read from the spectrum of the fluctuations.

Doreen Niether, Tsubasa Kawaguchi, Jana Hovancova, Kazuya Eguchi, Jan K. G. Dhont, *Rio Kita, and *Simone Wiegand,
Role of hydrogen bonding of cyclodextrin-drug complexes probed by thermodiffusion,
Langmuir 33, 8483-8492 (2017).

[Summary] Temperature gradient-induced migration of biomolecules, known as thermophoresis or thermodiffusion, changes upon ligand binding. In recent years, this effect has been used to determine protein−ligand binding constants. The mechanism through which thermodiffusive properties change when complexes are formed, however, is not understood. An important contribution to thermodiffusive properties originates from the thermal response of hydrogen bonds. Because there is a considerable difference between the degree of solvation of the protein−ligand complex and its isolated components, ligand-binding is accompanied by a significant change in hydration. The aim of the present work is therefore to investigate the role played by hydrogen bonding on the change in thermodiffusive behavior upon ligand-binding. As a model system, we use cyclodextrins (CDs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), where quite a significant change in hydration is expected and where no conformational changes occur when a CD/ASA complex is formed in aqueous solution. Thermophoresis was investigated in the temperature range of 10−50 °C by infrared thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were performed at 25 °C to obtain information about the structure of the complexes. All CD/ASA complexes show a stronger affinity toward regions of lower temperature compared to the free CDs. We found that the temperature sensitivity of thermophoresis correlates with the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient. This observation not only establishes the relation between thermodiffusion and degree of hydrogen bonding but also opens the possibility to relate thermodiffusive properties of complexes to their partition coefficient, which cannot be determined otherwise. This concept is especially interesting for protein−ligand complexes where the protein undergoes a conformational change, different from the CD/ASA complexes, giving rise to additional changes in their hydrophilicity.

*Eiki Iyoda, Kazuya Kaneko, Takahiro Sagawa,,
Fluctuation Theorem for Many-Body Pure Quantum States,
Physical Review Letters 119, 100601/1-6 (2017).

[Summary] We prove the second law of thermodynamics and the nonequilibrium fluctuation theorem for pure quantum states. The entire system obeys reversible unitary dynamics, where the initial state of the heat bath is not the canonical distribution but is a single energy eigenstate that satisfies the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis. Our result is mathematically rigorous and based on the Lieb-Robinson bound, which gives the upper bound of the velocity of information propagation in many-body quantum systems. The entanglement entropy of a subsystem is shown connected to thermodynamic heat, highlighting the foundation of the information-thermodynamics link. We confirmed our theory by numerical simulation of hard-core bosons, and observed dynamical crossover from thermal fluctuations to bare quantum fluctuations. Our result reveals a universal scenario that the second law emerges from quantum mechanics, and can be experimentally tested by artificial isolated quantum systems such as ultracold atoms.

*Yohsuke T. Fukai and Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Interfaces with Inward Growth,
Physical Review Letters 119, 030602/1-5 (2017).

[Summary] We study the (1+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) interfaces growing inward from ring-shaped initial conditions, experimentally and numerically, using growth of a turbulent state in liquid-crystal electroconvection and an off-lattice Eden model, respectively. To realize the ring initial condition experimentally, we introduce a holography-based technique that allows us to design the initial condition arbitrarily. Then, we find that fluctuation properties of ingrowing circular interfaces are distinct from those for the curved or circular KPZ subclass and, instead, are characterized by the flat subclass. More precisely, we find an asymptotic approach to the Tracy-Widom distribution for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble and the Airy1 spatial correlation, as long as time is much shorter than the characteristic time determined by the initial curvature. Near this characteristic time, deviation from the flat KPZ subclass is found, which can be explained in terms of the correlation length and the circumference. Our results indicate that the sign of the initial curvature has a crucial role in determining the universal distribution and correlation functions of the KPZ class.

*Akito Noiri, Kento Kawasaki, Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Jun Yoneda, Shinichi Amaha, Matthieu Delbecq, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and *Seigo Tarucha,
A triangular triple quantum dot with tunable tunnel couplings,
Semiconductor Science and Technology 32, 084004-1-5 (2017).

[Summary] A two-dimensional arrangement of quantum dots (QDs) with finite inter-dot tunnel coupling provides a promising platform for studying complicated spin correlations as well as for constructing large-scale quantum computers. Here, we fabricate a tunnel-coupled triangular triple QD with a novel gate geometry in which three dots are defined by positively biasing the surface gates. At the same time, the small area in the center of the triangle is depleted by negatively biasing the top gate placed above the surface gates. The size of the small center depleted area is estimated from the Aharonov–Bohm oscillation measured for the triangular channel but incorporating no gate-defined dots, with a value consistent with the design. With this approach, we can bring the neighboring gate-defined dots close enough to one another to maintain a finite inter-dot tunnel coupling. We finally confirm the presence of the inter-dot tunnel couplings in the triple QD from the measurement of tunneling current through the dots in the stability diagram. We also show that the charge occupancy of each dot and that the inter-dot tunnel couplings are tunable with gate voltages.

Takahiro Ishida, Yohann Duguet, *Takahiro Tsukahara,
Turbulent bifurcations in intermittent shear flows: from puffs to oblique stripes,
Physical Review Fluids 2, 073902/1-18 (2017).

[Summary] Localized turbulent structures such as puffs or oblique stripes are building blocks of the intermittency regimes in subcritical wall-bounded shear flows. These turbulent structures are investigated in incompressible pressure-driven annular pipe flow using direct numerical simulations in long domains. For low enough radius ratio η, these coherent structures have a dynamics comparable to that of puffs in cylindrical pipe flow. For η larger than 0.5, they take the shape of helical stripes inclined with respect to the axial direction. The transition from puffs to stripes is analyzed statistically by focusing on the axisymmetry properties of the associated large-scale flows. It is shown that the transition is gradual: as the azimuthal confinement relaxes, allowing for an azimuthal large-scale component, oblique stripes emerge as predicted in the planar limit. The generality of this transition mechanism is discussed in the context of subcritical shear flows.

*Yuma Fujimoto, Takahiro Sagawa, Kunihiko Kaneko,,
Hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma in hierarchical game for resource competition,
New Journal of Physics 19, 073008/1-12 (2017).

[Summary] Dilemmas in cooperation are one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public goods game, each individual cooperates by paying a cost or defecting without paying it, and receives a reward from the group out of the collected cost. Thus, defecting is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individuals also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical game in which multiple groups compete for limited resources by utilizing the collected cost in each group, where the power to appropriate resources increases with the population of the group. Analyzing this hierarchical game, we found a hierarchical prisoner's dilemma, in which groups choose the defecting policy (say, armament) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group's benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns out to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical dilemma. Here the group reward increases with the group size. However, we find that there exists an optimal group size that maximizes the individual payoff. Furthermore, when the population asymmetry between two groups is large, the smaller group will choose a cooperation policy (say, disarmament) to avoid excessive response from the larger group, and the prisoner's dilemma between the groups is resolved. Accordingly, the relevance of this hierarchical game on policy selection in society and the optimal size of human or animal groups are discussed.

*Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Tomohiro Otsuka, Peter Stano, Shinichi Amaha, Jun Yoneda, Akito Noiri, Kento Kawasaki, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, Daniel Loss, and *Seigo Tarucha,
Robust single-shot spin measurement with 99.5% fidelity in a quantum dot array,
Physical Review Letters 119, 017701-1-6 (2017).

[Summary] We demonstrate a new method for projective single-shot measurement of two electron spin states (singlet versus triplet) in an array of gate-defined lateral quantum dots in GaAs. The measurement has very high fidelity and is robust with respect to electric and magnetic fluctuations in the environment. It exploits a long-lived metastable charge state, which increases both the contrast and the duration of the charge signal distinguishing the two measurement outcomes. This method allows us to evaluate the charge measurement error and the spin-to-charge conversion error separately. We specify conditions under which this method can be used, and project its general applicability to scalable quantum dot arrays in GaAs or silicon.

*Hiroki Yamaguchi, Kyogo Kawaguchi, Takahiro Sagawa,,
Dynamical crossover in a stochastic model of cell fate decision,
Phyical Review E 96, 012401/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We study the asymptotic behaviors of stochastic cell fate decision between proliferation and differentiation. We propose a model of a self-replicating Langevin system, where cells choose their fate (i.e., proliferation or differentiation) depending on local cell density. Based on this model, we propose a scenario for multicellular organisms to maintain the density of cells (i.e., homeostasis) through finite-ranged cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, we numerically show that the distribution of the number of descendant cells changes over time, thus unifying the previously proposed two models regarding homeostasis: the critical birth death process and the voter model. Our results provide a general platform for the study of stochastic cell fate decision in terms of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.

Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
1/fα power spectrum in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class,
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 50, 264006/1-17 (2017).

[Summary] The power spectrum of interface fluctuations in the (1+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class is studied both experimentally and numerically. A 1/f-type spectrum is found and characterized through a set of 'critical exponents' for the power spectrum. The recently formulated aging Wiener-Khinchin theorem accounts for the observed exponents. Interestingly, the 1/f-type spectrum in the KPZ class turns out to contain information on a universal distribution function characterizing the asymptotic state of the KPZ interfaces, namely the Baik-Rains universal variance. It is indeed observed in the presented data, both experimental and numerical, and in both circular and flat interfaces in the long time limit.

*Meydi Ferrier, Tomonori Arakawa, Tokuro Hata, Ryo Fujiwara, Raphaëlle Delagrange, Richard Deblock, Yoshimichi Teratani, Rui Sakano, Akira Oguri, *Kensuke Kobayashi,
Quantum fluctuations along symmetry crossover in a Kondo-correlated quantum dot,
Physical Review Letters 118, 196803/1-5 (2017).

[Summary] Universal properties of entangled many-body states are controlled by their symmetry and quantum fluctuations. By the magnetic-field tuning of the spin-orbital degeneracy in a Kondo-correlated quantum dot, we have modified quantum fluctuations to directly measure their influence on the many-body properties along the crossover from SU(4) to SU(2) symmetry of the ground state. High-sensitive current noise measurements combined with the nonequilibrium Fermi liquid theory clarify that the Kondo resonance and electron correlations are enhanced as the fluctuations, measured by the Wilson ratio, increase along the symmetry crossover. Our achievement demonstrates that nonlinear noise constitutes a measure of quantum fluctuations that can be used to tackle quantum phase transitions.

*Tomoaki Ota, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, and Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Negative and positive cross-correlations of current noises in quantum Hall edge channels at bulk filling factor v =1,
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 29, 225302 (2017).

[Summary] Cross-correlation noise in electrical currents generated from a series connection of two quantum point contacts (QPCs), the injector and the detector, is described for investigating energy relaxation in quantum Hall edge channels at bulk filling factor v =1. We address the importance of tuning the energy bias across the detector for this purpose. For a long channel with a macroscopic floating ohmic contact that thermalizes the electrons, the cross-correlation turns from negative values to the maximally positive value (identical noise in the two currents) by tuning the effective energy bias to zero. This can be understood by considering competition between the low-frequency charge fluctuation generated at the injector, which contributes positive correlation, and the partition noise at the detector, which gives negative correlation. Strikingly, even for a short channel without intentional thermalization, significantly large positive correlation is observed in contrast to negative values expected for coherent transport between the two QPCs.

*Shuichi Iwakiri, Yasuhiro Niimi, Kensuke Kobayashi,
Dynamics of pure spin current in high-frequency quantum regime,
Applied Physics Express 10, 053001/1-4 (2017).

[Summary] Pure spin current is a powerful tool for manipulating spintronic devices, and its dynamical behavior is an important issue. By using the mesoscopic transport theory for electron tunneling induced by spin accumulation, we investigate the dynamics of the spin current in the high-frequency quantum regime, where the effect of frequency is much greater than those of temperature and bias voltage. Besides the thermal noise, frequency-dependent finite noise emerges, signaling the spin current across the tunneling barrier. We also find that the autocorrelation of the spin current exhibits sinusoidal oscillation with time as a consequence of the Pauli exclusion principle even without any net charge current.

*Kyogo Kawaguchi, Ryoichiro Kageyama and *Masaki Sano,
Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures,
Nature 545, 327-332 (2017).

[Summary] Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system1. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain2. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and −1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head–tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from −1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

*Yuliang Jin, Hajime Yoshino,
Exploring the complex free energy landscape of the simplest glass by rheology,
Nature Communications 8, 14935 (2017).

[Summary] For amorphous solids, it has been intensely debated whether the traditional view on solids, in terms of the ground state and harmonic low energy excitations on top of it, such as phonons, is still valid. Recent theoretical developments of amorphous solids revealed the possibility of unexpectedly complex free energy landscapes where the simple harmonic picture breaks down. Here we demonstrate that standard rheo- logical techniques can be used as powerful tools to examine non-trivial consequences of such complex free energy landscapes. By extensive numerical simulations on a hard sphere glass under quasi-static shear at finite temperatures, we show that, above the so-called Gardner transition density, the elasticity breaks down, the stress relax- ation exhibits slow and aging dynamics, and the apparent shear modulus becomes protocol-dependent. Being designed to be reproducible in laboratories, our approach may trigger explorations of the complex free energy landscapes of a large variety of amorphous materials.

Takaki Yamamoto and Masaki Sano,
Chirality-induced helical self-propulsion of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets,
Soft Matter 13, 3328-3333 (2017).

[Summary] We report the first experimental realization of a chiral artificial microswimmer exhibiting helical motion without any external fields. We discovered that a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) droplet with a helical director field swims in a helical path driven by the Marangoni flow in an aqueous surfactant solution. We also showed that the handedness of the helical path is reversed when that of the CLC droplet is reversed by replacing the chiral dopant with the enantiomer. In contrast, nematic liquid crystal (NLC) droplets exhibited ballistic motions. These results suggest that the helical motion of the CLC droplets is driven by chiral couplings between the Marangoni flow and rotational motion via the helical director field of CLC droplets.

Tomoyuki Mano, *Jean-Baptiste Delfau, Junichiro Iwasawa, and Masaki Sano,
Optimal run-and-tumble based transportation of a Janus particle with active steering,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114, E2580–E2589 (2017).

[Summary] Commanding the swimming of micrometric objects subjected to thermal agitation is always challenging both for artificial and living systems. Now, artificial swimmers can be designed whose self-propelling force can be tuned at will. However, orienting such small particles to an arbitrary direction requires counterbalancing the random rotational diffusion. Here, we introduce a simple concept to reorient artificial swimmers, granting them a motion similar to the run-and-tumbling behavior of Escherichia coli. We demonstrate it using Janus particles with asymmetric surface coating and moving under an AC electric field. Moreover, we determine the optimal strategy and compare it with biological swimmers. Our results encourage further investigation into dynamical behavior of colloidal particles, as well as application to microscopic devices.

*Jacopo De Nardis, Pierre Le Doussal, and Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
Memory and Universality in Interface Growth,
Physical Review Letters 118, 125701/1-5 (2017).

[Summary] Recently, very robust universal properties have been shown to arise in one-dimensional growth processes with local stochastic rules, leading to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class. Yet it has remained essentially unknown how fluctuations in these systems correlate at different times. Here, we derive quantitative predictions for the universal form of the two-time aging dynamics of growing interfaces and we show from first principles the breaking of ergodicity that the KPZ time evolution exhibits. We provide corroborating experimental observations on a turbulent liquid crystal system, as well as a numerical simulation of the Eden model, and we demonstrate the universality of our predictions. These results may give insight into memory effects in a broader class of far-from-equilibrium systems.

Andreas Dechant, Adrian Baule, and *Shin-ichi Sasa,
Gaussian white noise as a resource for work extraction,
Physical Review E 95, 032132/1-12 (2017).

[Summary] We show that uncorrelated Gaussian noise can drive a system out of equilibrium and can serve as a resource from which work can be extracted. We consider an overdamped particle in a periodic potential with an internal degree of freedom and a state-dependent friction, coupled to an equilibrium bath. Applying additional Gaussian white noise drives the system into a nonequilibrium steady state and causes a finite current if the potential is spatially asymmetric. The model thus operates as a Brownian ratchet, whose current we calculate explicitly in three complementary limits. Since the particle current is driven solely by additive Gaussian white noise, this shows that the latter can potentially perform work against an external load. By comparing the extracted power to the energy injection due to the noise, we discuss the efficiency of such a ratchet.

*Masayuki Hashisaka, Naoaki Hiyama, Takafumi Akiho, Koji Muraki, *Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Waveform measurement of charge- and spin-density wavepackets in a chiral Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid,
Nature Physics 13, 559-562 (2017).

[Summary] In contrast to a free-electron system, a Tomonaga–Luttinger (TL) liquid in a one-dimensional (1D) electron system hosts charge and spin excitations as independent entities. When an electron is injected into a TL liquid, it transforms into charge- and spin-density wavepackets that propagate at different group velocities and move away from each other. This process, known as spin–charge separation, is the hallmark of TL physics. While spin–charge separation has been probed in momentum- or frequency-domain measurements in various 1D systems, waveforms of separated excitations, which are a direct manifestation of the TL behaviour, have been long awaited to be measured. Here, we present a waveform measurement for the pseudospin–charge separation process in a chiral TL liquid comprising quantum Hall edge channels. The charge- and pseudospin-density waveforms are captured by utilizing a spin-resolved sampling scope that records the spin-up or -down component of the excitations. This experimental technique provides full information for time evolution of the 1D electron system, including not only propagation of TL eigenmodes but also their decay in a practical device14.

Isala Dueramae, Masaru Yoneyama, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara, and *Rio Kita,
Self-assembly of acetylated dextran with various acetylation degrees in aqueous solutions: Studied by light scattering,
Carbohydrate Polymers 159, 171-177 (2017).

[Summary] Self-assembly of acetylated dextran (Ac-DEXs) was investigated with a modified dextran with acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine. The effect of acetylation degree on solution properties has been investigated by static and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Molecular weight (Mw) and the radius of gyration (Rg) of dextran significantly increased with acetylation degree due to the aggregates formation. However, those aggregates noticeably reduced with further increase of acetylation degree. It suggested that the aggregates have shrinkage. The aggregate formation is clearly confirmed by DLS analysis in the presence of the bimodal relaxation distribution for Ac-DEXs. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of fast and slow mode is distinctly corresponded with single dextran macromolecules and aggregates, respectively. The Rh of aggregates varied slightly with increasing acetylation degree. The aggregates of Ac-DEXs represent hard spherical nanoparticles whereas the random coil structure is found in dextran. Formation of gel nanoparticles was monitored at the highest acetylated substitution.

*Masahiko Ueda, Shin-ichi Sasa,
Replica symmetry breaking in trajectory space for the trap model,
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 50, 125001/1-14 (2017).

[Summary] We study the localization in the one-dimensional trap model in terms of statistical mechanics of trajectories. By numerically investigating overlap between trajectories of two particles on a common disordered potential, we find that there is a phase transition in the path ensemble. We characterize the low temperature phase as a replica symmetry breaking phase in trajectory space.

*Masato Itami, Shin-ichi Sasa,
Universal Form of Stochastic Evolution for Slow Variables in Equilibrium Systems,
Journal of Statistical Physics 167, 46-63 (2017).

[Summary] Nonlinear, multiplicative Langevin equations for a complete set of slow variables in equilibrium systems are generally derived on the basis of the separation of time scales. The form of the equations is universal and equivalent to that obtained by Green. An equation with a nonlinear friction term for Brownian motion turns out to be an example of the general results. A key method in our derivation is to use different discretization schemes in a path integral formulation and the corresponding Langevin equation, which also leads to a consistent understanding of apparently different expressions for the path integral in previous studies.

*Daiki Nishiguchi, Ken H. Nagai, Hugues Chate, and Masaki Sano,
Long-range nematic order and anomalous fluctuations in suspensions of swimming filamentous bacteria,
Physical Review E 95, 020601(R) /1-6 (2017).

[Summary] We study the collective dynamics of elongated swimmers in a very thin fluid layer by devising long, filamentous, non-tumbling bacteria. The strong confinement induces weak nematic alignment upon collision, which, for large enough density of cells, gives rise to global nematic order. This homogeneous but fluctuating phase, observed on the largest experimentally-accessible scale of millimeters,  exhibits the properties predicted by standard models for flocking such as the Vicsek-style model of polar particles  with nematic alignment: true long-range nematic order and non-trivial giant number fluctuations.

Harukuni Ikeda, Kunimasa Miyazaki and *Giulio Biroli,
The Fredrickson-Anderson model with random pinning on Bethe lattices and its MCT transitions,
EPL 116, 56004/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We investigate the dynamics of the randomly pinned Fredrickson-Andersen modelon the Bethe lattice. We find a line of random pinning dynamical transitions whose dynamicalcritical properties are in the same universality class of the A2 and A3 transitions of the modecoupling theory. The A3 behavior appears at the terminal point, where the relaxation becomeslogarithmic and the relaxation time diverges exponentially. We explain the critical behavior in terms of self-induced disorder and avalanches, strengthening the relationship discussed in recent works between glassy dynamics and random field Ising model.


Gioia Carinci, Cristiana Giardina, Frank Redig, Tomohiro Sasamoto,
A generalized asymmetric exclusion process with Uq(sl2) stochastic duality,
Probability Theory and Related Fields 166(3), 887-933 (2016).

[Summary] In the studies of one-dimensional asymmetric simple exclusion process(ASEP), the existence of self-duality is very useful but it has not been well understood what type of stochastic models with current have self-duality. In this paper we present a general scheme to construct stochastic processes with self-duality related to quantum group symmetries. As an example we constructed a model with multi-particle occupancy at a site related to higher spin representation of the quantum algebra Uq(sl2).

*Takumi Ito, Tomohiro Otsuka, Shinichi Amaha, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Takashi Nakajima, Jun Yoneda, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Akito Noiri, Kento Kawasaki, and Seigo Tarucha,
Detection and control of charge states in a quintuple quantum dot,
Scientific Reports 6, 39113 (2016).

[Summary] A semiconductor quintuple quantum dot with two charge sensors and an additional contact to the center dot from an electron reservoir is fabricated to demonstrate the concept of scalable architecture. This design enables formation of the five dots as confirmed by measurements of the charge states of the three nearest dots to the respective charge sensor. The gate performance of the measured stability diagram is well reproduced by a capacitance model. These results provide an important step towards realizing controllable large scale multiple quantum dot systems.

*Harukuni Ikeda, Kunimasa Miyazaki, and *Atsushi Ikeda,
A note on the replica liquid theory of binary mixtures,
Journal of Chemical Physics 145, 216101/1-2 (2016).

[Summary] We reformulate the Replica Liquid Theory in order to resolve the inherent problem related to the configurational entropy of the supercooled binary systems near the glass transition. By rewriting generating functions using the Morita-Hiroike representation, we have shown that the configurational entropy correctly converges to that of monatomic system in this limit.

*Shumpei Yamamoto, Sosuke Ito, Naoto Shiraishi, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Linear irreversible thermodynamics and Onsager reciprocity for information-driven engines,
Phyical Review E 94, 052121/1-11 (2016).

[Summary] In the recent progress in nonequilibrium thermodynamics, information has been recognized as a kind of thermodynamic resource that can drive thermodynamic current without any direct energy injection. In this paper, we establish the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics for a broad class of autonomous information processing. In particular, we prove that the Onsager reciprocity holds true with information: The linear response matrix is well-defined and is shown symmetric with both of the information affinity and the conventional thermodynamic affinity. As an application, we derive a universal bound for the efficiency at maximum power for information-driven engines in the linear regime. Our result reveals the fundamental role of information flow in linear irreversible thermodynamics.

Naoto Shiraishi, Keiji Saito and Hal Tasaki,
Universal trade-off relation between power and efficiency for heat engines,
Physical Review Letters 117, 190601/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] For a general thermodynamic system described as a Markov process, we prove a general lower bound for dissipation in terms of the square of the heat current, thus establishing that nonvanishing current inevitably implies dissipation. This leads to a universal trade-off relation between efficiency and power, with which we rigorously prove that a heat engine with nonvanishing power never attains the Carnot efficiency. Our theory applies to systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium, and does not assume any specific symmetry of the model.

Takuma Akimoto, Eli Barkai, Keiji Saito,
Universal Fluctuations of Single-Particle Diffusivity in Quenched Environment,
Physical Review Letters 117, 180602 (2016).

[Summary] Local diffusion coefficients in disordered materials such as living cells are highly heterogeneous. We consider finite systems with quenched disorder in order to investigate the effects of sample disorder fluctuations and confinement on single-particle diffusivity. While the system is ergodic in a single disorder realization, the time-averaged mean square displacement depends crucially on the disorder; i.e., the system is ergodic but non-self-averaging. Moreover, we show that the disorder average of the time-averaged mean square displacement decreases with the system size. We find a universal distribution for diffusivity in the sense that the shape of the distribution does not depend on the dimension. Quantifying the degree of the non-self-averaging effect, we show that fluctuations of single-particle diffusivity far exceed the corresponding annealed theory and also find confinement effects. The relevance for experimental situations is also discussed.

Ryoji Miyazaki, Takeshi Kawasaki, and *Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Cluster Glass Transition of Ultrasoft-Potential Fluids at High Density,
Physical Review Letterrs 117, 165701/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] Using molecular dynamics simulation, we investigate the slow dynamics of a supercooled binarymixture of soft particles interacting with a generalized Hertzian potential. At low density, it displays typicalslow dynamics near its glass transition temperature. At higher densities, particles bond together, formingclusters, and the clusters undergo the glass transition. The number of particles in a cluster increases one byone as the density increases. We demonstrate that there exist multiple cluster-glass phases characterized bya different number of particles per cluster, each of which is separated by distinct minima. Surprisingly, a socalledhigher order singularity of the mode-coupling theory signaled by a logarithmic relaxation is observedin the vicinity of the boundaries between monomer and cluster glass phases. The system also exhibits richand anomalous dynamics in the cluster glass phases, such as the decoupling of the self- and collectivedynamics.

Daijyu Nakayama, Hajime Yoshino, Francesco Zamponi,
Protocol-dependent shear modulus of amorphous solids,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment 10, 104001 (2016).

We investigate the linear elastic response of amorphous solids to a shear strain at zero temperature. We find that the response is characterized by at least two distinct shear moduli. The first one, πZFC, is associated with the linear response of a single energy minimum. The second, πFC, is related to sampling, through plastic events, an ensemble of distinct energy minima. We provide examples of protocols that allow one to measure both shear moduli. In agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the exact solution in infinite spatial dimensions, the ratio πFC/πZFC is found to vanish proportionally to the square root of pressure at the jamming transition. Our results establish that amorphous solids are characterized by a rugged energy landscape, which has a deep impact on their elastic response, as suggested by the infinite-dimensional solution.

Kazuya Eguchi, Doreen Niether, Simone Wiegand, and *Rio Kita,
Thermophoresis of cyclic oligosaccharides in polar solvents,
European Physical Journal E 39, 86/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides which are interesting as drug delivery systems, because they can be used as containers for pharmaceutical substances. We studied the Ludwig-Soret effect of α-, β-, γ- and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in water and formamide by infrared thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering (IR-TDFRS). In water the Soret coefficient, ST, of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin increases with increasing temperature and shows a sign change from negative to positive around T = 35 ◦C, while ST of methyl-β-cyclodextrin is positive in the entire investigated temperature. In formamide ST-values of all cyclodextrins coincide and show a slight decrease with temperature. We discuss the obtained results and relate the ST-values to the different hydrogen bonding capabilities of the cyclodextrins and the used solvents. It turns out that the change of ST with temperature correlates with the partition coefficient, log P, which indicates that more hydrophilic substances show a more pronounced temperature sensitivity of ST. Additionally we obtained a surprising result measuring the refractive index contrast factor with temperature, (∂n/∂T)c,p of cyclodextrins in formamide, which might be explained by a complex formation between cyclodextrins and formamide.

Yoshimichi Teratani, Rui Sakano, Ryo Fujiwara, Tokuro Hata, Tomonori Arakawa, Meydi Ferrier, Kensuke Kobayashi and Akira Oguri,
Field-enhanced Kondo correlations in a half-filling nanotube dot: evolution of an SU(n) Fermi-liquid fixed point,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 85, 094718/1-18 (2016).

[Summary] Carbon nanotube quantum dot has four-fold degenerate one-particle levels, which bring a variety to the Kondo effects taking place in a wide tunable-parameter space. We theoretically study an emergent SU(2) symmetry that is suggested by recent magneto-transport measurements, carried out near two electrons filling. It does not couple with the magnetic field, and emerges in the case where the spin and orbital Zeeman splittings cancel each other out in two of the oneparticle levels among four. This situation seems to be realized in the recent experiment. Using the Wilson numerical renormalization group, we show that a crossover from the SU(4) to SU(2) Fermi-liquid behavior occurs as magnetic field increases at two impurity-electrons filling. We also find that the quasiparticles are significantly renormalized as the remaining two one-particle levels move away from the Fermi level and are frozen at high magnetic fields. Furthermore, we consider how the singlet ground state evolves during such a crossover. Specifically, we reexamine the SU(N) Kondo singlet for M impurity-electrons filling in the limit of strong exchange interactions. We find that the nondegenerate Fermi-liquid fixed point of Nozieres and Blandin can be described as abosonic Perron-Frobenius vector for M composite pairs, each of which consists of one impurity-electron and one conduction-hole. This interpretation in terms of the Perron-Frobenius theorem can also be extended to the Fermi-liquid fixed-point without the SU(N) symmetry.

*Tomohiro Otsuka, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Shinichi Amaha, Jun Yoneda, Kenta Takeda, Giles Allison, Takumi Ito, Retsu Sugawara, Akito Noiri, Arne Ludwig, Andreas D. Wieck, and Seigo Tarucha,
Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot,
Scientific Reports 6, 31820 (2016).

[Summary] Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

Koutaro Nakagome, Katsuhiko Sato, Seine A. Shintani, *Shin’ichi Ishiwata,
Model simulation of the SPOC wave in a bundle of striated myofibrils,
Biophysics and Physicobiology 13, 217-226 (2016).

[Summary] SPOC (spontaneous oscillatory contraction) is a phenomenon observed in striated muscle under intermediateactivation conditions. Recently, we constructed a theoretical model of SPOC for a sarcomere, a unit sarcomeremodel, which explains the behavior of SPOC at each sarcomere level. We also constructed a single myofibrilmodel, which visco-elastically connects the unit model in series, and explains the behaviors of SPOC at themyofibril level. In the present study, to understand the SPOC properties in a bundle of myofibrils, weextended the single myofibril model to a two-dimensional (2D) model and a three-dimensional (3D) model, inwhich myofibrils were elastically connected side-by-side through cross-linkers between the Z-lines andM-lines. These 2D and 3D myofibril models could reproduce various patterns of SPOC waves experimentallyobserved in a 2D sheet and a 3D bundle of myofibrils only by choosing different values of elastic constants ofthe cross-linkers and the external spring. The results of these 2D and 3D myofibril models provide insightinto the SPOC properties of the higher-ordered assembly of myofibrils.

*Kenta Takeda, Jun Kamioka, Tomohiro Otsuka, Jun Yoneda, Takashi Nakajima, Matthieu R. Delbecq, Shinichi Amaha, Giles Allison, Tetsuo Kodera, Shunri Oda, and Seigo Tarucha,
A fault-tolerant addressable spin qubit in a natural silicon quantum dot,
Science Advances 2, e1600694 (2016).

[Summary] Fault-tolerant quantum computing requires high-fidelity qubits. This has been achieved in various solid-state systems, including isotopically purified silicon, but is yet to be accomplished in industry-standard natural silicon, mainly as a result of the dephasing caused by residual nuclear spins. This high fidelity can be achieved by speeding up the qubit operation and/or prolonging the dephasing time, that is, increasing the Rabi oscillation quality factor Q. In isotopically purified silicon quantum dots, only the second approach has been used, leaving the qubit operation slow. We apply the first approach to demonstrate an addressable fault-tolerant qubit using a natural silicon double quantum dot with a micromagnet that is designed for fast spin control. This optimized design allows access to Rabi frequencies up to 35 MHz, which is two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved in previous studies. We find the optimum Q = 140 in such high-frequency range at a Rabi frequency of 10 MHz. This leads to a qubit fidelity of 99.6% measured via randomized benchmarking, which is the highest reported for natural silicon qubits and comparable to that obtained in isotopically purified silicon quantum dot–based qubits. This result can inspire contributions to quantum computing from industrial communities.

Yoshiyuki Chiba and *Naoko Nakagawa,
Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics,
Physical Review E 94, 022115/1-10 (2016).

[Summary] We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states.

Shou-Wen Wang, Kyogo Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi Sasa, and Lei-Han Tang,
Entropy Production of Nanosystems with Time Scale Separation,
Physical Review Letters 117, 070601/1-070601-5 (2016).

[Summary] Energy flows in biomolecular motors and machines are vital to their function. Yet experimental observations are often limited to a small subset of variables that participate in energy transport and dissipation. Here we show, through a solvable Langevin model, that the seemingly hidden entropy production is measurable through the violation spectrum of the fluctuation-response relation of a slow observable. For general Markov systems with time scale separation, we prove that the violation spectrum exhibits a characteristic plateau in the intermediate frequency region. Despite its vanishing height, the plateau can account for energy dissipation over a broad time scale. Our findings suggest a general possibility to probe hidden entropy production in nanosystems without direct observation of fast variables.

*Kazumasa A. Takeuchi and Takuma Akimoto,
Characteristic Sign Renewals of Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Fluctuations,
Journal of Statistical Physics 164, 1167-1182 (2016).

[Summary] Tracking the sign of fluctuations governed by the (1+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class, we show, both experimentally and numerically, that its evolution has an unexpected link to a simple stochastic model called the renewal process, studied in the context of aging and ergodicity breaking. Although KPZ and the renewal process are fundamentally different in many aspects, we find remarkable agreement in some of the time correlation properties, such as the recurrence time distributions and the persistence probability, while the two systems can be different in other properties. Moreover, we find inequivalence between long-time and ensemble averages in the fraction of time occupied by a specific sign of the KPZ-class fluctuations. The distribution of its long-time average converges to nontrivial broad functions, which are found to differ significantly from that of the renewal process, but instead be characteristic of KPZ. Thus, we obtain a new type of ergodicity breaking for such systems with many-body interactions. Our analysis also detects qualitative differences in time-correlation properties of circular and flat KPZ-class interfaces, which were suggested from previous experiments and simulations but still remain theoretically unexplained.

Johannes Stigloher, Martin Decker, Helmut S. Körner, Kenji Tanabe, Takahiro Moriyama, Takuya Taniguchi, Hiroshi Hata, Marco Madami, Gianluca Gubbiotti, Kensuke Kobayashi, Teruo Ono, and Christian H. Back,
Snell’s Law for Spin Waves,
Physical Review Letters 117, 037204/1-4 (2016).

[Summary] We report the experimental observation of Snell’s law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

*Xiong Ding, Hugues Chate, Predrag Cvitanovic, Evangelos Siminos, and Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
Estimating the Dimension of an Inertial Manifold from Unstable Periodic Orbits,
Physical Review Letters 117, 024101/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] We provide numerical evidence that a finite-dimensional inertial manifold on which the dynamics of a chaotic dissipative dynamical system lives can be constructed solely from the knowledge of a set of unstable periodic orbits. In particular, we determine the dimension of the inertial manifold for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky system and find it to be equal to the “physical dimension” computed previously via the hyperbolicity properties of covariant Lyapunov vectors.

Misaki Ozawa, Kang Kim, *Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Tuning Pairwise Potential Can Control the Fragility of Glass-Forming Liquids: From Tetrahedral Network to Isotropic Soft Sphere Models,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment None, 074002/1-21 (2016).

[Summary] We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a SiO2 glass formermodel proposed by Coslovich and Pastore (CP) over a wide range of densities. Thedensity variation can be mapped onto the change of the potential depth between Siand O interactions of the CP model. By reducing the potential depth (or increasingthe density), the anisotropic tetrahedral network structure observed in the originalCP model transforms into the isotropic structure with the purely repulsive softspherepotential. Correspondingly, the temperature dependence of the relaxationtime exhibits the crossover from Arrhenius to super-Arrhenius behavior. Beingable to control the fragility over a wide range by tuning the potential of a singlemodel system helps us to bridge the gap between the network and isotropic glassformers and to obtain the insight into the underlying mechanism of the fragility. We study the relationship between the fragility and dynamical properties such as the magnitude of the Stokes–Einstein violation and the stretch exponent in the density correlation function. We also demonstrate that the peak of the specific heat systematically shifts as the density increases, hinting that the fragility is correlated with the hidden thermodynamic anomalies of the system.

Keiji Saito and Abhishek Dhar,
Waiting for rare entropic fluctuations,
Europhys Letters 114, 50004/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] Nonequilibrium fluctuations of various stochastic variables, such as work and entropy production, have been widely discussed recently in the context of large deviations, cumulants and fluctuation relations. Typically one looks at the probability distributions for entropic fluctuations of various sizes to occur in a fixed time interval. An important and natural question is to ask for the time one has to wait to see fluctuations of a desired size. We address this question by studying the first-passage time distribution (FPTD). We derive the general basic equation to get the FPTD for entropic variables. Based on this, the FPTD on entropy production in a driven colloidal particle in the ring geometry is illustrated. A general asymptotic form of the FPTD and integral fluctuation relation symmetry in terms of the first passages are found.

Kaito Sasaki, Yurika Matsui, Masahiko Miyara, Rio Kita, Naoki Shinyashiki, and Shin Yagihara,
Glass transition and dynamics of the polymer and water in the poly(vinylpyrrolidone)−water mixtures studied by dielectricrelaxation spectroscopy,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 120, 6882-6889 (2016).

[Summary] In this study, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements are performed to study the dynamics of water and polymers in an aqueous solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) with concentrations of 60, 65, and 70 wt % PVP in a temperature range of 123-298 K. Two distinct relaxation processes, l- and h-processes, which originate from the segmental chain motion of PVP and the primary relaxation process of water, respectively, are observed simultaneously. The relationship between l- and h-processes and their temperature dependences mimic those of the α-process and Johari-Goldstein β-process, which are observed in ordinal glass formers. The relaxation time of the l-process, τl, obeys the Vogel-Fulcher (VF)-type temperature dependence, and the glass-transition temperature of the l-process, Tg,l, which is defined by the temperature that is reached in a τl of 100-1000 s, shows good agreement with the calorimetric Tg obtained by DSC. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time of the h-process, τh, exhibits a crossover from VF to Arrhenius behavior at the so-called fragile-to-strong transition (FST) of water at Tg,l. The temperature dependence of the relaxation strength of the h-process, Δϵh, increases with a decrease in temperature from 298 K to Tg,l. Below Tg,l, Δϵh is nearly constant or slightly decreases with decreasing temperature. According to previous studies on aqueous solutions of sugars and alcohols, the Δϵ of the ν-process, which originates from local motion of water, decreases with decreasing temperature above the Tg of the α-process, which originates from the cooperative motion of the solute and water. Therefore, the l-process in the PVP-water mixture is not a result of the cooperative motion of PVP and water but rather a result of the polymer-polymer cooperative motion of PVP. In addition, agreement among Tg,l, the temperature of the FST of water, and calorimetric Tg suggests that the FST of water occurs at Tg.

*J.-B. Delfau, John J. Molina and M. Sano,
Collective behavior of strongly confined suspensions of squirmers,
Europhysics Letters 114, 24001/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] We run numerical simulations of strongly confined suspensions of model spherical swimmers called “squirmers”. Because of the confinement, the Stokeslet dipoles generated by the particles are quickly screened and the far-field flow is dominated by the source dipole for all the different kinds of squirmers. However, we show that the collective behavior of the suspension still depends on the self-propelling mechanism of the swimmers as polar states can only be observed for neutral squirmers. We demonstrate that the near-field hydrodynamic interactions play a crucial role in the alignment of the orientation vectors of spherical particles. Moreover, we point out thatthe enstrophy and the fluid fluctuations of an active suspension also depend on the nature of the squirmers.

Tatsuya Muro, Yoshitaka Nishihara, Shota Norimoto, Meydi Ferrier, Tomonori Arakawa, *Kensuke Kobayashi, Thomas Ihn, Clemens Rösler, Klaus Ensslin, Christian Reichl, and Werner Wegscheider,
Finite shot noise and electron heating at quantized conductance in high-mobility quantum point contacts,
Physical Review B 93, 195411/1-7 (2016).

[Summary] We report a precise experimental study on the shot noise of a quantum point contact (QPC) fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs based high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The combination of unprecedented cleanliness and very high measurement accuracy has enabled us to discuss the Fano factor to characterize the shot noise with a precision of 0.01. We observed that the shot noise at zero magnetic field exhibits a slight enhancement exceeding the single particle theoretical prediction, and that it gradually decreases as a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. We also confirmed that this additional noise completely vanishes in the quantum Hall regime. These phenomena can be explained by the electron heating effect near the QPC, which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field.

Kaito Sasaki, Rio Kita, *Naoki Shinyashiki, and Shin Yagihara,
Dielectric relaxation time of ice-Ih with different preparation,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 120, 3950-3953 (2016).

[Summary] Dielectric relaxation process of ice-Ih has been investigated by many researchers. Pioneering studies focused on the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation time, τice, were reported by Auty in 1952 [Auty, R. P.; Cole, R. H. J. Chem. Phys. 1952, 120, 1309] and Johari in 1981 [Johari, G. P.; Whalley, E. J. Chem. Phys. 1981, 75, 1333]. However, the temperature dependences of τice found in these studies are not in agreement. While Auty et al. reported a single Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice for the entire 207−273 K temperature range, Johari et al. reported changes in the temperature dependence of ice at 230 and 140 K. In this study, the temperature dependence of τice is investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy for ice prepared by three different procedures. For all investigated ices, a dielectric relaxation process is observed, and τice decreases with increasing temperature. Temperature dependence of τice with rapid crystallization shows the same properties at temperatures down to 140 K as that reported by Johari et al. On the other hand, ice obtained by slow crystallization exhibits the same temperature dependence of τice as those reported by Auty et al. We suggest that the difference between the temperature dependences of τice found by Auty et al. and Johari et al. can be controlled by preparation conditions. That is, the growth rate of the ice crystal can affect τice because a slow growth speed of the ice crystal induces a smaller impurity content of ice, giving rise to an Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice.

Shin-ichi Sasa, Yuki Yokokura,
Thermodynamic entropy as a Noether invariant,
Physical Review Letters 116, 140601/1-140601/6 (2016).

[Summary] We study a classical many-particle system with an external control represented by a time-dependent extensive parameter in a Lagrangian. We show that thermodynamic entropy of the system is uniquely characterized as the Noether invariant associated with a symmetry for an infinitesimal nonuniform time translation t→t+ηℏβ, where η is a small parameter, ℏ is the Planck constant, β is the inverse temperature that depends on the energy and control parameter, and trajectories in the phase space are restricted to those consistent with quasistatic processes in thermodynamics.

Daniele Coslovich, *Atsushi Ikeda, Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Mean-field dynamic criticality and geometric transition in the Gaussian core model,
Physical Review E 93, 042602/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] We use molecular dynamics simulations to investigate dynamic heterogeneities and the potential energy landscape of the Gaussian core model (GCM). Despite the nearly Gaussian statistics of particles' displacements, the GCM exhibits giant dynamic heterogeneities close to the dynamic transition temperature. The divergence of the four-point susceptibility is quantitatively well described by the inhomogeneous version of the mode-coupling theory. Furthermore, the potential energy landscape of the GCM is characterized by large energy barriers, as expected from the lack of activated, hopping dynamics, and display features compatible with a geometric transition. These observations demonstrate that all major features of mean-field dynamic criticality can be observed in a physically sound, three-dimensional model.

*Takao Ohta, Mitsusuke Tarama and Masaki Sano,
Simple model of cell crawling,
Physica D 318, 3-11 (2016).

[Summary] Based on symmetry consideration of migration and shape deformations, we formulate phenomenologically the dynamics of cell crawling in two dimensions. Forces are introduced to change the cell shape. The shape deformations induce migration of the cell on a substrate. For time-independent forces we show that not only a stationary motion but also a limit cycle oscillation of the migration velocity and the shape occurs as a result of nonlinear coupling between different deformation modes. Time-dependent forces are generated in a stochastic manner by utilizing the so-called coherence resonance of an excitable system. The present coarse-grained model has a flexibility that it can be applied, e.g., both to keratocyte cells and to View the MathML source cells, which exhibit quite different dynamics from each other. The key factors for the motile behavior inherent in each cell type are identified in our model.

*Aki Kutvonen, Takahiro Sagawa, and Tapio Ala-Nissila,
Thermodynamics of information exchange between two coupled quantum dots,
Phyical Review E 93, 032147/1-7 (2016).

[Summary] We propose a setup based on two coupled quantum dots where thermodynamics of a measurement can be quantitatively characterized. The information obtained in the measurement can be utilized by performing feedback in a manner apparently breaking the second law of thermodynamics. In this way the setup can be operated as a Maxwell's demon, where both the measurement and feedback are performed separately by controlling an external parameter. This is analogous to the case of the original Szilard engine. Since the setup contains both the microscopic demon and the engine itself, the operation of the whole measurement-feedback cycle can be explained in detail at the level of single realizations. In addition, we derive integral fluctuation relations for both the bare and coarse-grained entropy productions in the setup.

Takashi Mori, Tomotaka Kuwahara, Keiji Saito,
Rigorous bound on energy absorption and generic relaxation in periodically driven quantum systems,
Physical Review Letters 116, 120401/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] We discuss the universal nature of relaxation in isolated many-body quantum systems subjected to global and strong periodic driving. Our rigorous Floquet analysis shows that the energy of the system remains almost constant up to an exponentially long time in frequency for arbitrary initial states and that an effective Hamiltonian obtained by a truncation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion is a quasiconserved quantity in a long time scale. These two general properties lead to an intriguing classification on the initial stage of relaxation, one of which is similar to the prethermalization phenomenon in nearly integrable systems.

Shunpei Takeshita, Sadashige Matsuo, Takahiro Tanaka, Shu Nakaharai, Kazuhito Tsukagoshi, Takahiro Moriyama, Teruo Ono, Tomonori Arakawa, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Anomalous behavior of 1/f noise in graphene near the charge neutrality point,
Applied Physics Letters 108, 103106/1-4 (2016).

[Summary] We investigate the noise in single layer graphene devices from equilibrium to far-from equilibrium and found that the 1/f noise shows an anomalous dependence on the source-drain bias voltage . While the Hooge’s relation is not the case around the charge neutrality point, we found that it is recovered at very low bias region. We propose that the depinning of the electron-hole puddles is induced at finite bias, which may explain this anomalous noise behavior.

*John J. Molina, Kotaro Otomura, Hayato Shiba, Hideki Kobayashi, Masaki Sano, and Ryoichi Yamamoto,
Rheological evaluation of colloidal dispersions using the smoothed profile method: formulation and applications,
Journal of Fluid Mechanics 792, 590-619 (2016).

[Summary] The smoothed profile method is extended to study the rheological behaviour of colloidal dispersions under shear flow by using the Lees–Edwards boundary conditions. We start with a reformulation of the smoothed profile method, a direct numerical simulation method for colloidal dispersions, so that it can be used with the Lees–Edwards boundary condition, under steady or oscillatory-shear flow. By this reformulation, all the resultant physical quantities, including local and total shear stresses, become available through direct calculation. Three simple rheological simulations are then performed for (1) a spherical particle, (2) a rigid bead chain and (3) a collision of two spherical particles under shear flow. Quantitative validity of these simulations is examined by comparing the viscosity with that obtained from theory and Stokesian dynamics calculations. Finally, we consider the shear-thinning behaviour of concentrated colloidal dispersions.

*Masaki Sano and Keiichi Tamai,
A Universal Transition to Turbulence in Channel Flow,
Nature Physics 12, 249-253 (2016).

[Summary] Transition from laminar to turbulent flow drastically changes the mixing, transport, and drag properties of fluids, yet when and how turbulence emerges is elusive even for simple flow within pipes and rectangular channels1,2. Unlike the onset of temporal disorder, which is identified as the universal route to chaos in confined flows3,4, characterization of the onset of spatio-temporal disorder has been an outstanding challenge because turbulent domains irregularly decay or spread as they propagate downstream. Here, through extensive experimental investigation of channel flow, we identify a distinctive transition with critical behavior. Turbulent domains continuously injected from an inlet ultimately decayed, or in contrast, spread depending on flow rates. Near a transition point, critical behavior was observed. We investigate both spatial and temporal dynamics of turbulent clusters, measuring four critical exponents, a universal scaling function and a scaling relation, all in agreement with the (2+1) dimensional directed percolation universality class.

Tomotaka Kuwahara, Takashi Mori, and Keiji Saito,
Floquet-Magnus Theory and Generic Transient Dynamics in Periodically Driven Many-Body Quantum Systems,
Annals of Physics, 96-124 (2016).

[Summary] This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states after infinite-time evolution, irrespective of dynamical details. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In the analysis, we focus on the Floquet-Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a finite-time scale.

Christian Van den Broeck, Shin-ichi Sasa, Udo Seifert,
Focus on stochastic thermodynamics,
New Journal of Physics 18, 020401-020403 (2016).

[Summary] We introduce the thirty papers collected in this 'focus on' issue. The contributions explore conceptual issues within and around stochastic thermodynamics, use this framework for the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of specific systems, and provide further perspectives on and for this active field.

Kazuhisa Washio, Ryo Nakazawa, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, Y. Tokura, and Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Long-lived binary tunneling spectrum in the quantum Hall Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid,
Physical Review B 93, 075304 (2016).

[Summary] The existence of long-lived non-equilibrium states without showing thermalization, which has previously been demonstrated in time evolution of ultracold atoms, suggests the possibility of their spatial analogue in transport behavior of interacting electrons in solid-state systems. Here we report long-lived non-equilibrium states in one-dimensional edge channels in the integer quantum Hall regime. An indirect heating scheme in a counterpropagating configuration is employed to generate a non-trivial binary spectrum consisting of high- and low-temperature components. This unusual spectrum is sustained even after travelling 5 - 10 μm, much longer than the length for electronic relaxation (about 0.1 μm), without showing significant thermalization. This observation is consistent with the integrable model of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The long-lived spectrum implies that the system is well described by non-interacting plasmons, which are attractive for carrying information for a long distance.

*Kenji Tanabe, Ryo Matsumoto, Jun-Ichiro Ohe, Shuichi Murakami, Takahiro Moriyama, Daichi Chiba, Kensuke Kobayashi and Teruo Ono,
Observation of magnon Hall-like effect for sample-edge scattering in unsaturated YIG,
physica status solidi (b) 253, 783-787 (2016).

[Summary] We report the observation of a magnon Hall-like effect for the scattering of magnons at the sample edge in Y3Fe5O12 crystals. The experiments are performed under an out-of-plane magnetic field at room temperature using an infrared thermometry. When the magnons are incident into the sample edge in the unsaturated magnetic structure, appreciable transverse thermal gradient is detected. This thermal gradient could be attributed to magnon Hall effect for sample-edge scattering. We unexpectedly find that this effect is largely enhanced in the unsaturated regime, compared with the saturated regime where theoretical mechanism of magnon Hall effect due to the Berry curvature has been proposed previously.

Naoto Shiraishi, Takumi Matsumoto, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Measurement-feedback formalism meets information reservoirs,
New Journal of Physics 18, 013044/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] There have been two distinct formalisms of thermodynamics of information: one is the measurement-feedback formalism, which concerns bipartite systems with measurement and feedback processes, and the other is the information reservoir formalism, which considers bit sequences as a thermodynamic fuel. In this paper, we derive a second-law-like inequality by applying the measurement-feedback formalism to information reservoirs, which provides a stronger bound of extractable work than any other known inequality in the same setup. In addition, we demonstrate that the Mandal-Jarzynski model, which is a prominent model of the information reservoir formalism, is equivalent to a model obtained by the contraction of a bipartite system with autonomous measurement and feedback. Our results provide a unified view on the measurement-feedback and the information-reservoir formalisms.

*Tokuro Hata, Tomonori Arakawa, Kensaku Chida, Sadashige Matsuo, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Giant Fano factor and bistability in a Corbino disk in the quantum Hall effect breakdown regime,
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 28, 055801/1-7 (2016).

[Summary] We performed noise measurements for a Corbino disk in the quantum Hall effect breakdown regime. We investigated two Corbino-disk-type devices with different sizes and observed that the Fano factor increases when the length between the contacts doubles. This observation is consistent with the avalanche picture suggested by the bootstrap electron heating model. The temperature dependence of the Fano factor indicates that the avalanche effect becomes more prominent as temperature decreases. Moreover, in the highly nonlinear regime, negative differential resistance and temporal oscillation due to bistability are found. A possible interpretation of this result is that Zener tunneling of electrons between Landau levels occurs.

Yasutaka Ohnishi, Rio Kita, Kazuyoshi Tsuchiya and *Satoru Iwamori,
Optical characteristics of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) thin film prepared by a vacuum evaporation,
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 55, 02BB04/1-5 (2016).

[Summary] Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) thin films were deposited onto a glass slide substrate by a heat-resistance type vacuum evaporation apparatus due to changing the evaporation conditions. Transparency of the PTFE thin films prepared by the vacuum evaporation depended on the deposition conditions, i.e., temperatures of the basket, and distance between the evaporation source and substrate. To elucidate relationship between the molecular structure and transparency of the PTFE thin film prepared by the vacuum evaporation, chemical structures, crystallinity and thermophysical property were investigated. The chemical bonding state of the PTFE thin film prepared by the vacuum evaporation was almost the same as that of the pristine PTFE, however, the crystalinity was different. Although the pristine PTFE was crystal structure, the transparent evaporated thin film was estimated to be microcrystal structure. In addition, endothermic peaks in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) spectrum of the PTFE thin film were different from that of the pristine PTFE. These endothermic peaks of the PTFE thin film prepared by the vacuum evaporation shifted lower temperature compared to the pristine PTFE, which suggests that molecular weight of the PTFE thin film prepared by the vacuum evaporation decreased compared with that of the pristine PTFE.


Alexei Borodin, Ivan Corwin, Leonid Petrov, Tomohiro Sasamoto,
Spectral theory for interacting particle systems solvable by coordinate Bethe ansatz,
Communications in Mathematical Physics 339(3), 1167-1245 (2015).

[Summary] In recent studies of KPZ systems, stochastic particle systems called the q-TASEP and the q-boson zero range process have been playing important roles. In this paper we have introduced a generalized process related to the orthogonal weight of the q-Hahn polynomials. We have given a formula for the moments of the currents.


*Meydi Ferrier, Tomonori Arakawa, Tokuro Hata, Ryo Fujiwara, Raphaëlle Delagrange, Raphael Weil, Richard Deblock, Rui Sakano, Akira Oguri, and *Kensuke Kobayashi,
Universality of non-equilibrium fluctuations in strongly correlated quantum liquids,
Nature Physics 12, 230-235 (2015).

[Summary] Interacting quantum many-body systems constitute a fascinating research field because they form quantum liquids with remarkable properties and universal behavior. In fermionic systems, such quantum liquids are realized in helium-3 liquid, heavy fermion systems, neutron stars and cold gases. Their properties in the linear-response regime have been successfully described by the theory of Fermi liquids. The idea is that they behave as an ensemble of non-interacting‘quasi-particles’. However, non-equilibrium properties have still to be established and remain a key issue of many-body physics. Here, we show a precise experimental demonstration of Landau Fermi liquid theory extended to the non-equilibrium regime in a zero-dimensional system. Combining transport and ultra-sensitive current noise measurements, we have unambiguously identified the SU(2) and SU(4) symmetries of a quantum liquid in a carbon nanotube tuned in the universal Kondo regime. Whereas the free quasi-particle picture is found valid around equilibrium, an enhancement of the current fluctuations is detected out of equilibrium and perfectly explained by an effective charge induced by the residual interaction between quasi-particles. Moreover, an as-yet-unknown scaling law for the effective charge is discovered, suggesting a new non-equilibrium universality.


*Daiki Nishiguchi and Masaki Sano,
Mesoscopic turbulence and local order in Janus particles self-propelling under an ac electric field,
Physical Review E 92, 052309/1-11 (2015).

[Summary] To elucidate mechanisms of mesoscopic turbulence exhibited by active particles, we experimentally study turbulent states of nonliving self-propelled particles. We realize an experimental system with dense suspensions of asymmetrical colloidal particles (Janus particles) self-propelling on a two-dimensional surface under an ac electric field. Velocity fields of the Janus particles in the crowded situation can be regarded as a sort of turbulence because it contains many vortices and their velocities change abruptly. Correlation functions of their velocity field reveal the coexistence of polar alignment and antiparallel alignment interactions, which is considered to trigger mesoscopic turbulence. Probability distributions of local order parameters for polar and nematic orders indicate the formation of local clusters with particles moving in the same direction. A broad peak in the energy spectrum of the velocity field appears at the spatial scales where the polar alignment and the cluster formation are observed. Energy is injected at the particle scale and conserved quantities such as energy could be cascading toward the larger clusters.

Masato Itami and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Derivation of Stokes’ Law from Kirkwood’s Formula and the Green-Kubo Formula via Large Deviation Theory,
Journal of Statistical Physics 161, 532-552 (2015).

[Summary] We study the friction coefficient of a macroscopic sphere in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. First, Kirkwood’s formula for the friction coefficient is reviewed on the basis of the Hamiltonian description of particle systems. According to this formula, the friction coefficient is expressed in terms of the stress correlation on the surface of the macroscopic sphere. Then, with the aid of large deviation theory, we relate the surface stress correlation to the stress correlation in the bulk of the fluid, where the latter is characterized by the viscosity in the Green–Kubo formula. By combining Kirkwood’s formula and the Green–Kubo formula in large deviation theory, we derive Stokes’ law without explicitly employing the hydrodynamic equations.

D. Imanaka, S. Sharmin, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, and *Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Exchange-induced spin blockade in a two-electron double quantum dot,
Physical Review Letters 115, 176802 (2015).

[Summary] We have experimentally identified the exchange-induced spin blockade in a GaAs double quantum dot. The transport is suppressed only when the eigenstates are well-defined singlet and triplet states, and thus sensitive to dynamic nuclear-spin polarization that causes singlet-triplet mixing. This gives rise to unusual current spectra, such as a sharp current dip and an asymmetric current profile near the triplet resonance of a double quantum dot. Numerical simulations suggest that the current dip is a signature of identical nuclear-spin polarization in the two dots, which is attractive for coherent spin manipulations in a material with nuclear spins.

J. C. H. Chen, Y. Sato, R. Kosaka, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, and Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Enhanced electron-phonon coupling for a semiconductor charge qubit in a surface phonon cavity,
Scientific Reports 5, 15176 (2015).

[Summary] Electron-phonon coupling is a major decoherence mechanism, which often causes scattering and energy dissipation in semiconductor electronic systems. However, this electron-phonon coupling may be used in a positive way for reaching the strong or ultra-strong coupling regime in an acoustic version of the cavity quantum electrodynamic system. Here we propose and demonstrate a phonon cavity for surface acoustic waves, which is made of periodic metal fingers that constitute Bragg reflectors on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Phonon band gap and cavity phonon modes are identified by frequency, time and spatially resolved measurements of the piezoelectric potential. Tunneling spectroscopy on a double quantum dot indicates the enhancement of phonon assisted transitions in a charge qubit. This encourages studying of acoustic cavity quantum electrodynamics with surface phonons.

Harukuni Ikeda, *Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Facilitated spin model on Bethe lattice with random pinning,
EPL 112, 16001 (2015).

[Summary] We study the effects of random pinning on the Fredrickson-Andersen model on the Bethe lattice. We find that the nonergodic transition temperature rises as the fraction of the pinned spins increases and the transition line terminates at a critical point. The freezing behavior of the spins is analogous to that of a randomly pinned p-spin mean-field spin glass model which has been recently reported. The diverging behavior of correlation lengths in the vicinity of the terminal critical point is found to be identical to the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode-coupling theory at the A 3 singularity point for the glass transition.

Naoaki Hiyama, *Masayuki Hashisaka, and Toshimasa Fujisawa,
An edge magnetoplasmon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,
Applied Physics Letters 107, 143101 (2015).

[Summary] We report an edge-magnetoplasmon (EMP) Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer in a quantum Hall system. The MZ interferometer, which is based on the interference of two EMP beams traveling in chiral one-dimensional edge channels, is constructed by tailoring edge channels with functional devices such as splitters and delay lines. We measured 1 GHz EMP beams transmitted through the interferometer while tuning the phase evolution along two interference paths using tunable delay lines. Clear interference patterns as a function of the phase difference ensure the MZ interference. Moreover, the MZ interferometry is applied to evaluate the EMP transport through an attenuator interposed in one of the paths. This technique will be useful for investigating the functionalities of devices in plasmonics.

*Takahiro Hatano,
Friction laws from dimensional-analysis point of view.,
Geophysical Journal International 202, 2159-2162 (2015).

[Summary] Friction laws, which are a key to the understanding of the diversity of earthquakes, are considered theoretically. Using dimensional analysis, the logarithmic dependence of the friction coefficient on the slip velocity and the state variable is derived without any knowledge of the underlying physical processes on the frictional surface. This is based on a simple assumption that the friction coefficient is expressed as the difference from a reference state. Therefore, the functional form of the rate and state dependent friction law itself does not necessarily mean that thermal activation processes dominate friction. It is also shown that if there are two (or more) state variables having the same dimension, we need not assume the logarithmic dependence on the state variables.

Kousaku Maeda, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara, Simone Wiegand, and *Rio Kita,
Ludwig-Soret effect of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol oligomers, crown ethers, and glycerol: Temperature, molecular weight, and hydrogen bond effect,
Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 124504/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] The thermal diffusion, also called the Ludwig-Soret effect, of aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol oligomers, crown ethers, and glycerol is investigated as a function of temperature by thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering. The Soret coefficient, S_T, and the thermal diffusion coefficient, D_T, show a linear temperature dependence for all studied compounds in the investigated temperature range. The magnitudes and the slopes of S_T and D_T vary with the chemical structure of the solute molecules. All studied molecules contain ether and/or hydroxyl groups, which can act as acceptor or donor to form hydrogen bonds, respectively. By introducing the number of donor and acceptor sites of each solute molecule, we can express their hydrogen bond capability. S_T and D_T can be described by an empirical equation depending on the difference of donor minus acceptor sites and the molecular weight of the solute molecule.

*Shoichi Toyabe, Masaki Sano,
Nonequilibrium Fluctuations in Biological Strands, Machines, and Cells,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 84, 102001/1-17 (2015).

[Summary] Can physics provide a quantitative methodology and unified view to elucidate rich and diverse biological phenomena? Nonequilibrium fluctuations are key quantities. These fluctuations have universal symmetries, convey essential information about systems’ behaviors, and are experimentally accessible in most systems. We review experimental developments to extract information from the nonequilibrium fluctuations of biological systems. In particular, we focus on the three major hierarchies in small scales: strands, molecular machines, and cells.

*Sadashige Matsuo, Shunpei Takeshita, Takahiro Tanaka, Shu Nakaharai, Kazuhito Tsukagoshi, Takahiro Moriyama, Teruo Ono, Kensuke Kobayashi,
Edge mixing dynamics in graphene p–n junctions in the quantum Hall regime,
Nature Communications 6, 8066/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] Massless Dirac electron systems such as graphene exhibit a distinct half-integer quantum Hall effect, and in the bipolar transport regime co-propagating edge states along the pn junction are realized. Additionally, these edge states are uniformly mixed at the junction, which makes it a unique structure to partition electrons in these edge states. Although many experimental works have addressed this issue, the microscopic dynamics of electron partition in this peculiar structure remains unclear. Here we performed shot-noise measurements on the junction in the quantum Hall regime as well as at zero magnetic field. We found that, in sharp contrast with the zero-field case, the shot noise in the quantum Hall regime is finite in the bipolar regime, but is strongly suppressed in the unipolar regime. Our observation is consistent with the theoretical prediction and gives microscopic evidence that the edge states are uniquely mixed along the pn junction.

Tomohiro Sasamoto, Herbert Spohn,
Point-interacting Brownian motions in the KPZ universality class,
Electronic Journal of Probability 20, 1-28 (2015).

[Summary] We constructed an interacting Brownian motion model in the KPZ class. In particular the model has self-duality by which we could show that the current distribution tends to the Tracy-Widom distribution. This could be used as model for colloidal particle system which shows KPZ behaviors.

Masahiko Ueda and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Replica symmetry breaking in trajectories of a driven Brownian particle,
Physical Review Letters 115, 080605/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] We study a Brownian particle passively driven by a field obeying the noisy Burgers’ equation. We demonstrate that the system exhibits replica symmetry breaking in the path ensemble with the initial position of the particle being fixed. The key step of the proof is that the path ensemble with a modified boundary condition can be exactly mapped onto the canonical ensemble of directed polymers.

Kay Brandner, Keiji Saito, and Udo Seifert ,
Thermodynamics of Micro- and Nano-Systems Driven by Periodic Temperature Variations,
Physical Review X 5, 031019 (2015).

[Summary] We introduce a general framework for analyzing the thermodynamics of small systems that are driven by both a periodic temperature variation and some external parameter modulating their energy. We show how to express total entropy production by properly identified time-independent affinities and currents without making a linear response assumption. In linear response, kinetic coefficients akin to Onsager coefficients can be identified. Specializing to a Fokker-Planck-type dynamics, we show that these coefficients can be expressed as a sum of an adiabatic contribution and one reminiscent of a Green-Kubo expression that contains deviations from adiabaticity. Furthermore, we show that the generalized kinetic coefficients fulfill an Onsager-Casimir-type symmetry tracing back to microscopic reversibility. This symmetry allows for nonidentical off-diagonal coefficients if the driving protocols are not symmetric under time reversal. We then derive a novel constraint on the kinetic coefficients that is sharper than the second law and provides an efficiency-dependent bound on power.

Misaki Ozawa, *Walter Kob, Atsushi Ikeda, Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Reply to Chakrabarty et al.: Particles move even in ideal glasses,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, E4821-E4822 (2015).

[Summary] In their letter, Chakrabarty et al. (1) point out that their data on the relaxation dynamics are inconsistent with the thermodynamic data presented in our paper (2). They argue that from their results and the predictions of the random first-order transition theory (3) one must conclude that our configurational entropy $S_c$ is “quantitatively not accurate.” In the following we will show that this conclusion is not necessarily valid.

S. K. Kundu, S. Choe, K. Sasaki, Rio Kita, N. Shinyashiki, and *S. Yagihara,
Relaxation dynamics of liposomes in an aqueous solution,
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 17, 18449-18455 (2015).

[Summary] The gel–liquid crystal phase transition has been studied by the temperature and frequency dependent dielectric relaxation behavior of liposomes in an aqueous solution (40 g L^{-1} DPPC–water mixture). Four relaxation processes were observed in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 30 GHz which were ascribed to different molecular mechanisms, related to the structural units of the system. The gel–liquid crystal phase transition was also described very accurately from the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation strength, relaxation time and symmetric shape parameter of the relaxation functions obtained from the fitting procedure. Relaxation process 3, obtained from the dielectric fitting procedure, was confirmed by dielectric modulus analysis. A comparison of the lipid membrane with non-biological systems like liquid crystals was performed. It was determined that the lipid membrane has a ferroelectric liquid crystal like behavior. Process 3 is comparable to the soft mode relaxation process observed in ferroelectric liquid crystals which was detected close to the smectic-C*–smectic-A phase transition. Differential scanning calorimetry was also used to confirm the gel–liquid crystal phase transition of this mixture.

Takahiro Hatano, Clément Narteau and Peter Shebalin,
Common dependence on stress for the statistics of granular avalanches and earthquakes,
Scientific Reports 5, 12280 (2015).

[Summary] Both earthquake size-distributions and aftershock decay rates obey power laws. Recent studies have demonstrated the sensibility of their parameters to faulting properties such as focal mechanism, rupture speed or fault complexity. The faulting style dependence may be related to the magnitude of the differential stress, but no model so far has been able to reproduce this behaviour. Here we investigate the statistical properties of avalanches in a dissipative, bimodal particulate system under slow shear. We find that the event size-distribution obeys a power law only in the proximity of a critical volume fraction, whereas power-law aftershock decay rates are observed at all volume fractions accessible in the model. Then, we show that both the exponent of the event size-distribution and the time delay before the onset of the power-law aftershock decay rate are decreasing functions of the shear stress. These results are consistent with recent seismological observations of earthquake size-distribution and aftershock statistics.

Péter Ván, Noa Mitsui, Takahiro Hatano,
Non-equilibrium thermodynamical framework for rate- and state-dependent friction,
Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering 59, 583-589 (2015).

[Summary] Rate- and state-dependent friction laws for velocity-step and healing are analysed from a thermodynamic point of view. Assuming a logarithmic deviation from steady-state, a unification of the classical Dieterich and Ruina models of rock friction is proposed.

Teruhisa S. Komatsu, Naoko Nakagawa, Shin-ichi Sasa, and Hal Tasaki,
Exact equalities and thermodynamic relations for nonequilibrium steady states,
Journal of Statistical Physics 159, 1237-1285 (2015).

[Summary] We study thermodynamic operations which bring a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) to another NESS in physical systems under nonequilibrium conditions. We model the system by a suitable Markov jump process, and treat thermodynamic operations as protocols according to which the external agent varies parameters of the Markov process. Then we prove, among other relations, a NESS version of the Jarzynski equality and the extended Clausius relation. The latter can be a starting point of thermodynamics for NESS. We also find that the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy has a microscopic representation in terms of symmetrized Shannon entropy in systems where the microscopic description of states involves "momenta". All the results in the present paper are mathematically rigorous.

*Sadashige Matsuo, Shu Nakaharai, Katsuyoshi Komatsu, Kazuhito Tsukagoshi, Takahiro Moriyama, Teruo Ono, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots,
Scientific Reports 5, 11723/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.

*Sosuke Ito, Takahiro Sagawa,
Maxwell’s demon in biochemical signal transduction with feedback loop,
Nature Communications 6, 7498 (2015).

[Summary] Signal transduction in living cells is vital to maintain life itself, where information transfer in noisy environment plays a significant role. In a rather different context, the recent intensive researches of "Maxwell's demon" - a feedback controller that utilizes information of individual molecules - has led to a unified theory of information and thermodynamics. Here we combine these two streams of researches, and show that the second law of thermodynamics with information reveals the fundamental limit of the robustness of signal transduction against environmental fluctuations. Especially, we found that the degree of robustness is quantitatively characterized by an informational quantity called transfer entropy. Our information-thermodynamic approach is applicable to biological communication inside cells, in which there is no explicit channel coding in contrast to artificial communication. Our result would open up a novel biophysical approach to understand information processing in living systems on the basis of the fundamental information-thermodynamics link.

Kazuhiro Kishi, Masashi Kawaguchi, Hitoshi Miura, *Masahide Sato and Makio Uwaha,
Relation between the Step Pattern and the Velocity of the Moving Linear Adatom Source,
e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology 13, 269-274 (2015).

[Summary] During deposition of Ga atoms on a Si(111) vicinal face, a step on the vicinal face shows a comb-like pattern.Keeping the formation of comb-like pattern in mind, we carry out phase field simulations, in which a linear adatom source advances in front of a step. The comb-like pattern consisting of straight finger-like intrusions is formed when the source velocity is smaller than a critical value determined by the step anisotropy. Initially, the straight step is unstable and step wandering is induced by the asymmetry of the surface diffusion field. The amplitude of step fluctuations increases with time and an array of short intrusions is formed. Shorter intrusions cannot catch sufficient adatoms, so that coarsening of the pattern occurs. When the adatom source moves slowly, the intrusions grow long and the step shows a regular comb-like pattern. By the coarsening, the distance between intrusions is several times larger than the initial value. The pattern is metastable for a rapid change in the source velocity. When the adatom source moves fast, the intrusions cannot keep up with the adatom source and an irregular pattern is formed. When the strength of crystal anisotropy is weak, splitting of the tips of intrusions frequently occurs and the step shows an irregular seaweed-like pattern. With a strong crystal anisotropy, the step shows a dendrite pattern.

Kiyoshi Kanazawa, Tomohiko G. Sano, Takahiro Sagawa, and Hisao Hayakawa,
Asymptotic Derivation of Langevin-like Equation with Non-Gaussian Noise and Its Analytical Solution,
Journal of Statistical Physics 160, 1294-1335 (2015).

*Timothy Halpin-Healy, Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
A KPZ Cocktail: Shaken, not stirred… -Toasting 30 years of kinetically roughened surfaces,
Journal of Statistical Physics 160, 794-814 (2015).

[Summary] The stochastic partial differential equation proposed nearly three decades ago by Kardar, Parisi and Zhang (KPZ) continues to inspire, intrigue and confound its many admirers. Here, we i) pay debts to heroic predecessors, ii) highlight additional, experimentally relevant aspects of the recently solved 1+1 KPZ problem, iii) use an expanding substrates formalism to gain access to the 3d radial KPZ equation and, lastly, iv) examining extremal paths on disordered hierarchical lattices, set our gaze upon the fate of $d = \infty$ KPZ. Clearly, there remains ample unexplored territory within the realm of KPZ and, for the hearty, much work to be done, especially in higher dimensions, where numerical and renormalization group methods are providing a deeper understanding of this iconic equation.

Misaki Ozawa, *Walter Kob, Atsushi Ikeda, and Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Equilibrium phase diagram of a randomly pinned glass-former,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112, 6914-6919 (2015).

[Summary] Confirming by experiments or simulations whether or not an ideal glass transition really exists is a daunting task, because at this point the equilibration time becomes astronomically large. Recently it has been proposed that this difficulty can be bypassed by pinning a fraction of the particles in the glass-forming system. Here we study numerically a liquid with such random pinned particles and identify the ideal glass transition point TK at which the configurational entropy vanishes, thus realizing for the first time, to our knowledge, a glass with zero entropy. We find that as the fraction of pinned particles increases, the TK line crosses the dynamical transition line, implying the existence of an end point at which theory predicts a new type of criticality.

*Taiki Haga,
Nonequilibrium Langevin equation and effective temperature for particle interacting with spatially extended environment,
Journal of Statistical Physics 159, 713-729 (2015).

[Summary] We investigate a novel type of Langevin model that describes the nonequilibrium dynamics of a classical particle interacting with a spatially extended environment. In this model, a particle, which interacts with the environment through the nonlinear interaction Hamiltonian, is driven by a constant external force, and subsequently, it reaches a nontrivial nonequilibrium steady state. We derive an effective Langevin equation for the particle in the nonequilibrium steady states. Using this equation, we calculate the effective temperature defined as the ratio of the correlation function of the velocity fluctuation to the linear response function with respect to a small perturbation. As a result, it is shown that the effective temperature associated with the time scale of the particle is identical to the kinetic temperature if the time scale of the environment and that of the particle are well separated. Furthermore, a noteworthy expression, which relates the kinetic temperature with the curvature of the driving force-mean velocity curve, is derived.

*Shin-ichi Sasa,
Collective dynamics from stochastic thermodynamics,
New Journal of Physics 17, 045024/1-14 (2015).

[Summary] From a viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics, we derive equations that describe the collective dynamics near the order-disorder transition in the globally coupled XY model and near the synchronization-desynchronization transition in the Kuramoto model. A new way of thinking is to interpret the deterministic time evolution of a macroscopic variable as an external operation to a thermodynamic system. We then find that the irreversible work determines the equation for the collective dynamics. When analyzing the Kuramoto model, we employ a generalized concept of irreversible work which originates from a non-equilibrium identity associated with steady state thermodynamics. (IOP SELECT)

Ken H. Nagai, Yutaka Sumino, Raul Montagne, Igor S. Aranson, and *Hugues Chaté,
Collective motion of self-propelled particles with memory,
Physical Review Letters 114, 168001/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] We show that memory, in the form of underdamped angular dynamics, is a crucial ingredient for the collective properties of self-propelled particles. Using Vicsek-style models with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process acting on angular velocity, we uncover a rich variety of collective phases not observed in usual overdamped systems, including vortex lattices and active foams. In a model with strictly nematic interactions the smectic arrangement of Vicsek waves giving rise to global polar order is observed. We also provide a calculation of the effective interaction between vortices in the case where a telegraphic noise process is at play, explaining thus the emergence and structure of the vortex lattices observed here and in motility assay experiments.

*Naoto Shiraishi, Sosuke Ito, Kyogo Kawaguchi, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Role of measurement-feedback separation in autonomous Maxwell’s demons,
New Journal of Physics 17, 045012/1-11 (2015).

[Summary] We introduce an information heat engine that is autonomous (i.e., without any time-dependent parameter) but has separated measurement and feedback processes. This model serves as a bridge between different types of information heat engines inspired by Maxwell's demon; from the original Szilard-engine type systems to the autonomous demonic setups. By analyzing our model on the basis of a general framework introduced in our previous paper (Shiraishi and Sagawa 2015 Phys. Rev. E 91 012130), we clarify the role of the separation of measurement and feedback in the integral fluctuation theorems.

Youhei Kanatsu and *Masahide Sato,
Crystallization of Brownian particles in a pyramidal pit by a uniform external force,
Journal of the Physics Society of Japan 84, 044601/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] We carry out Brownian dynamics simulations and study the crystallization of particles in an inverse pyramidal-shaped container induced by an external force. Owing to the side walls of the container, the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is mainly formed. In the bulk, both disordered solidlike particles and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) structured particles are hardly formed. These two types of particle appear near the central axis of the container. Their numbers increase with increasing strength of the external force.

*Kiyoshi Kanazawa, Tomohiko G. Sano, Takahiro Sagawa, and Hisao Hayakawa,
Minimal Model of Stochastic Athermal Systems: Origin of Non-Gaussian Noise,
Physical Review Letters 114, 090601/1-10 (2015).

[Summary] For a wide class of stochastic athermal systems, we derive Langevin-like equations driven by non-Gaussian noise, starting from master equations and developing a new asymptotic expansion. We found an explicit condition whereby the non-Gaussian properties of the athermal noise become dominant for tracer particles associated with both thermal and athermal environments. Furthermore, we derive an inverse formula to infer microscopic properties of the athermal bath from the statistics of the tracer particle. We apply our formulation to a granular motor under viscous friction and analytically obtain the angular velocity distribution function. Our theory demonstrates that the non-Gaussian Langevin equation is the minimal model of athermal systems.

*Hiroyuki Ebata and Masaki Sano,
Swimming droplets driven by a surface wave,
Scientific Reports 5, 8546/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] Self-propelling motion is ubiquitous for soft active objects such as crawling cells, ac-tive filaments, and liquid droplets moving on surfaces. Deformation and energy dissi-pation are required for self-propulsion of both living and non-living matter. From the perspective of physics, searching for universal laws of self-propelled motions in a dis-sipative environment is worthwhile, regardless of the objects’ details. In this article, we propose a simple experimental system that demonstrates spontaneous migration of a droplet under uniform mechanical agitation. As we vary control parameters, sponta-neous symmetry breaking occurs sequentially, and cascades of bifurcations of the mo-tion arise. Equations describing deformable particles and hydrodynamic simulations successfully describe all of the observed motions. This system should enable us to im-prove our understanding of spontaneous motions of self-propelled objects.

*Takaki Yamamoto, Masafumi Kuroda, and Masaki Sano,
Three-dimensional analysis of thermo-mechanically rotating cholesteric liquid crystal droplets under a temperature gradient,
EPL 109, 46001/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] We studied the rotational motion of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets under a temperaturegradient (the Lehmann effect). We found that different surface treatments, planar andhomeotropic anchoring, provided three types of droplets with different textures and geometries.The rotational velocity of these droplets depends differently on their size. Determining the threedimensionalstructures of these droplets by the fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, wepropose a phenomenological equation to explain the rotational behavior of these droplets. Thisresult shows that the description by the Ericksen-Leslie theory should be valid in the bulk of thedroplet, but we need to take into account the surface torque induced by temperature gradient tofully understand the Lehmann effect.

*Masayuki Hashisaka, Tomoaki Ota, Koji Muraki, and Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Shot-noise evidence of fractional quasiparticle creation in a local fractional quantum Hall state,
Physical Review Letters 114, 056802/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] We experimentally identify fractional quasiparticle creation in a tunneling process through a local fractional quantum Hall (FQH) state. The local FQH state is prepared in a low-density region near a quantum point contact in an integer quantum Hall (IQH) system. Shot-noise measurements reveal a clear transition from elementary-charge tunneling at low bias to fractional-charge tunneling at high bias. The fractional shot noise is proportional to T1(1−T1) over a wide range of T1, where T1 is the transmission probability of the IQH edge channel. This binomial distribution indicates that fractional quasiparticles emerge from the IQH state to be transmitted through the local FQH state. The study of this tunneling process enables us to elucidate the dynamics of Laughlin quasiparticles in FQH systems.

*Juan M. R. Parrondo, Jordan M. Horowitz, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Thermodynamics of information,
Nature Physics 11, 131-139 (2015).

[Summary] By its very nature, the second law of thermodynamics is probabilistic, in that its formulation requires a probabilistic description of the state of a system. This raises questions about the objectivity of the second law: does it depend, for example, on what we know about the system? For over a century, much effort has been devoted to incorporating information into thermodynamics and assessing the entropic and energetic costs of manipulating information. More recently, this historically theoretical pursuit has become relevant in practical situations where information is manipulated at small scales, such as in molecular and cell biology, artificial nano-devices or quantum computation. Here we give an introduction to a novel theoretical framework for the thermodynamics of information based on stochastic thermodynamics and fluctuation theorems, review some recent experimental results, and present an overview of the state of the art in the field.

Wataru Yamamoto, Kaito Sasaki, Rio Kita, Shin Yagihara, and *Naoki Shinyashiki,
Dielectric study on temperature-concentration superposition of liquid to glass in fructose-water mixtures,
Journal of Molecular Liquids 206, 39–46 (2015).

[Summary] Broadband dielectric measurements of fructose-water mixtures with various fructose concentrations, Cf (wt%), in the range of 5 - 94.6 wt% were carried out in the frequency range of 2 mHz - 50 GHz at 25 and 0 degreeC, to clarify the dynamics of water and fructose molecules in the mixtures from the liquid to glass states as a function of Cf. For the mixtures with Cf below 45 wt%, a single relaxation process originating from the reorientational motion of water, i.e., "mu"-relaxation, was observed. In contrast, in the mixtures with Cf above 45 wt%, in addition to the "mu"-relaxation, "alpha"-relaxation resulting from the cooperative motion of two components appears at a lower frequency than that of the "mu"-relaxation. Due to the facts of the precise analyses, the temperature-concentration superposition appears to be valid for the "mu"- and "alpha"- relaxations.

Alexei Borodin, Ivan Corwin, Leonid Petrov, and Tomohiro Sasamoto,
Spectral theory for the q-boson particle system,
Compositio Mathematica 151, 1-67 (2015).

[Summary] We develop spectral theory for the generator of the q-Boson particle system. Our cen- tral result is a Plancherel type isomorphism theorem for this system. This theorem has various implications. It proves the completeness of the Bethe ansatz for the q-Boson generator and con- sequently enables us to solve the Kolmogorov forward and backward equations for general initial data. Owing to a Markov duality with q-TASEP, this leads to moment formulas which characterize the fixed time distribution of q-TASEP started from general initial conditions. The theorem also implies the biorthogonality of the left and right eigenfunctions.We consider limits of our q-Boson results to a discrete delta Bose gas considered previously by van Diejen, as well as to another discrete delta Bose gas that describes the evolution of moments of the semi-discrete stochastic heat equation (or equivalently, the O’Connell-Yor semi-discrete directed polymer partition function). A further limit takes us to the delta Bose gas which arises in studying moments of the stochastic heat equation / Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

*Hironori Hoshino and Shin Nakamura,
Effective temperature of nonequilibrium dense matter in holography,
Physical Review D 91, 026009 /1-10 (2015).

[Summary] We study properties of effective temperature of nonequilibrium steady states by using the anti–de Sitter spacetime/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT ) correspondence. We consider nonequilibrium systems with a constant flow of current along an electric field, in which the current is carried by both the doped charges and those pair created by the electric field. We find that the effective temperature agrees with that of the Langevin systems if we take the limit where the pair creation is negligible. The effect of pair creation raises the effective temperature whereas the current by the doped charges contributes to lower the effective temperature in a wide range of the holographic models.

Masashi Kawaguchi, Hitoshi Miura, Kazuhiro Kishi, Masahide Sato, and *Makio Uwaha,
Period of a comblike pattern controlled by atom supply and noise,
Physical Review E 91, 012409/1-9 (2015).

[Summary] Pattern formation of a step on a growing crystal surface induced by a straight line source of atoms, which is escaping from the step at a velocity Vp, is studied with the use of a phase field model. From a straight step, fluctuations of the most unstable wavelength λmax grow. Competition of intrusions leads to coarsening of the pattern, and survived intrusions grow exponentially. With sufficient strength of the crystal anisotropy, a regular comblike pattern appears. This peculiar step pattern is similar to that observed on a Ga-deposited Si(111) surface. The final period of the intrusions, Λ, is determined when the exponential growth ends. The period depends on the strength Fu of a current noise in diffusion as Λ∼λmax|lnFu|: such a logarithmic dependence is confirmed for the first time. A nonmonotonic Vp dependence of Λ indicates that the comblike pattern with a small Vp is related to an unstable growth mode of the free needle growth in a channel. The pattern is stabilized by the guiding linear source.

*Naoto Shiraishi and Takahiro Sagawa,
Fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics,
Physical Review E 91, 012130/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] We establish a generalization of the fluctuation theorem for partially masked nonequilibrium dynamics. We introduce a partial entropy production with a subset of all possible transitions, and show that the partial entropy production satisfies the integral fluctuation theorem. Our result reveals the fundamental properties of a broad class of autonomous as well as nonautonomous nanomachines. In particular, our result gives a unified fluctuation theorem for both autonomous and nonautonomous Maxwell's demons, where mutual information plays a crucial role. Furthermore, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem that relates nonequilibrium stationary current to two kinds of equilibrium fluctuations.

*Tomonori Arakawa, Junichi Shiogai, Mariusz Ciorga, Martin Utz, Dieter Schuh, Makoto Kohda, Junsaku Nitta, Dominique Bougeard, Dieter Weiss, Teruo Ono, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Shot noise induced by nonequilibrium spin accumulation,
Physical Review Letters 114, 016601/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] When an electric current passes across a potential barrier, the partition process of electrons at the barrier gives rise to the shot noise, reflecting the discrete nature of the electric charge. Here we report the observation of excess shot noise connected with a spin current which is induced by a nonequilibrium spin accumulation in an all-semiconductor lateral spin-valve device. We find that this excess shot noise is proportional to the spin current. Additionally, we determine quantitatively the spin-injection-induced electron temperature by measuring the current noise. Our experiments show that spin accumulation driven shot noise provides a novel means of investigating nonequilibrium spin transport.

Corrado Rainone, Pierfrancesco Urbani, Hajime Yoshino, *Francesco Zamponi,
Following the evolution of glassy states under external perturbations: compression and shear-strain,
Physical Review Letters 114, 015701/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] We consider the adiabatic evolution of glassy states under external perturbations. The formalism we use is very general. Here we use it for infinite-dimensional hard spheres where an exact analysis is possible. We consider perturbations of the boundary, i.e., compression or (volume preserving) shear strain, and we compute the response of glassy states to such perturbations: pressure and shear stress. We find that both quantities overshoot before the glass state becomes unstable at a spinodal point where it melts into a liquid (or yields). We also estimate the yield stress of the glass. Finally, we study the stability of the glass basins towards breaking into sub-basins, corresponding to a Gardner transition. We find that close to the dynamical transition, glasses undergo a Gardner transition after an infinitesimal perturbation.

Masato Itami and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics for Adiabatic Piston Problem,
Journal of Statistical Physics 158, 37-56 (2015).

[Summary] We consider the dynamics of a freely movable wall of mass M with one degree of freedom that separates a long tube into two regions, each of which is filled with rarefied gas particles of mass m. The gases are initially prepared at equal pressure but different temperatures, and we assume that the pressure and temperature of gas particles before colliding with the wall are kept constant over time in each region. We elucidate the energetics of the setup on the basis of the local detailed balance condition, and then derive the expression for the heat transferred from each gas to the wall. Furthermore, by using the condition, we obtain the linear response formula for the steady velocity of the wall and steady energy flux through the wall. Using perturbation expansion in a small parameter ϵ≡m/M−−−−−√, we calculate the steady velocity up to order ϵ.


Tomohiro Sasamoto, and Lauren Williams,
Combinatorics of the asymmetric exclusion process on a semi-infinite lattice,
Journal of Combinatorics 5(4), 419-434 (2014).

[Summary] We develop spectral theory for the generator of the q-Boson particle system. Our cen- tral result is a Plancherel type isomorphism theorem for this system. This theorem has various implications. It proves the completeness of the Bethe ansatz for the q-Boson generator and con- sequently enables us to solve the Kolmogorov forward and backward equations for general initial data. Owing to a Markov duality with q-TASEP, this leads to moment formulas which characterize the fixed time distribution of q-TASEP started from general initial conditions. The theorem also implies the biorthogonality of the left and right eigenfunctions.We consider limits of our q-Boson results to a discrete delta Bose gas considered previously by van Diejen, as well as to another discrete delta Bose gas that describes the evolution of moments of the semi-discrete stochastic heat equation (or equivalently, the O’Connell-Yor semi-discrete directed polymer partition function). A further limit takes us to the delta Bose gas which arises in studying moments of the stochastic heat equation / Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

Ismael S. S. Carrasco, Kazumasa A. Takeuchi, Silvio da Costa Ferreira Junior, and *Tiago José Oliveira,
Interface fluctuations for deposition on enlarging flat substrates,
New Journal of Physics 16, 123057/1-20 (2014).

[Summary] We investigate solid-on-solid models that belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) universality class on substrates that expand laterally at a constant rate. Despite the null global curvature, we show that all investigated models have asymptotic height distributions and spatial covariances in agreement with those expected for the KPZ subclass for curved surfaces. In 1+1 dimensions, the height distribution and covariance are given by the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution and the Airy2 process instead of the GOE and Airy1 foreseen for flat interfaces. These results imply that when the KPZ class splits into curved and flat subclasses, as conventionally considered, the expanding substrate may play a role equivalent to, or perhaps more important than, the global curvature. Moreover, the translational invariance of the interfaces evolving on growing domains allowed us to accurately determine, in 2+1 dimensions, the analog of the GUE Tracy-Widom distribution for height distribution and that of the Airy2 process for spatial covariance. Temporal covariance is also calculated and shown to be universal in each dimension and in each of the two subclasses. A logarithmic correction associated with the duplication of columns is observed and theoretically elucidated. Finally, crossover between regimes with fixed-size and enlarging substrates is also investigated.

*Norio Kumada, Preden Roulleau, Benoit Roche, Masayuki Hashisaka, Hiroki Hibino, Ivana Petković, and Christian Glattli,
Resonant edge magnetoplasmons and their decay in graphene,
Physical Review Letters 113, 266601 (2014).

[Summary] We investigate resonant edge magnetoplasmons (EMPs) and their decay in graphene by high-frequency electronic measurements. From EMP resonances in disk shaped graphene, we show that the dispersion relation of EMPs is nonlinear due to interactions, giving rise to the intrinsic decay of EMP wave packets. We also identify extrinsic dissipation mechanisms due to interaction with localized states in bulk graphene from the decay time of EMP wave packets. We indicate that, owing to the linear band structure and the sharp edge potential, EMP dissipation in graphene can be lower than that in GaAs systems.

Saroj Kumar Nandi, *Giulio Biroli, Jean-Philippe Bouchaud, Kunimasa Miyazaki, and David R. Reichman,
Critical dynamical heterogeneities close to continuous second-order glass transitions,
Physical Review Letters 113, 245701/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We analyze, using inhomogeneous mode-coupling theory, the critical scaling behavior of the dynamical susceptibility at a distance ε from continuous second-order glass transitions. We find that the dynamical correlation length ξ behaves generically as ε−1/3 and that the upper critical dimension is equal to six. More surprisingly, we find that ξ grows with time as ln2t exactly at criticality. All of these results suggest a deep analogy between the glassy behavior of attractive colloids or randomly pinned supercooled liquids and that of the random field Ising model.

Alexei Borodin, *Ivan Corwin, Tomohiro Sasamoto,
From duality to determinants for q-TASEP and ASEP,
Annals of Probability 42, 2314-2382 (2014).

[Summary] We prove duality relations for two interacting particle systems: the q-deformed totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (q-TASEP) and the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP). Expectations of the duality functionals correspond to certain joint moments of particle locations or integrated currents, respectively. Duality implies that they solve systems of ODEs. These systems are integrable and for particular step and half- stationary initial data we use a nested contour integral ansatz to provide ex- plicit formulas for the systems’ solutions, and hence also the moments.

Kousaku Maeda, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara, Simone Wiegand, *Rio Kita,
How does thermodiffusion of aqueous solutions depend on concentration and hydrophobicity?,
European Physical Journal E 37, 94(6pages) (2014).

[Summary] The thermal diffusion of aqueous solutions of mono-, di-ethylene glycols, poly(ethylene glycol), methanol, and glycerol is investigated systematically as a function of concentration using the Thermal Diffusion Forced Rayleigh Scattering (TDFRS). For all investigated binary mixtures, the Soret coefficient, ST , decays with increasing concentration of the non-aqueous component showing two regions. For aqueous solution of ethylene glycol, at a very low solute content the decay is steep, while it becomes less steep for higher solute concentration. All mixtures show a sign change of ST with concentration. The sign change concentration is discussed with respect to chemical structures of solute molecules and the partition coefficient, log p . It turns out that the number of hydroxyl groups plays an important role. For the investigated aqueous mixtures, we find empirical linear relations between the sign change concentration and the ratio of the number of hydroxyl groups to the number of carbon atoms as well as the partition coefficient, log p.

Takahiro Nemoto, Vivien Lecomte, Shin-ichi Sasa, and *Friédéric van Wijland,
Finite size effects in a mean-field kinetically constrained model: dynamical glassiness and quantum criticality,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics -, P10001/1-38 (2014).

[Summary] On the example of a mean-field Fredrickson-Andersen kinetically constrained model, we focus on the known property that equilibrium dynamics take place at a first-order dynamical phase transition point in the space of time-realizations. We investigate the finite-size properties of this first order transition. By discussing and exploiting a mapping of the classical dynamical transition -an argued glassiness signature- to a first-order quantum transition, we show that the quantum analogy can be exploited to extract finite-size properties, which in many respects are similar to those in genuine mean-field quantum systems with a first-order transition. We fully characterize the finite-size properties of the order parameter across the first order transition.

Mamoru Fujine, *Masahide Sato, Tetsuya Toyooka, Hiroyasu Katsuno, Yoshihisa Suzuki, and Tsutomu Sawada,
Crystallization of Brownian particles in thin systems constrained by walls,
Physical Review E 90, 032404/1-7 (2014).

[Summary] Keeping formation of a colloidal crystal by a centrifugal force in mind, we carry out Brownian dynamics simulations in thin systems and study ordering of particles induced by an external force. During solidification, the two-dimensional ordering along walls initially occurs. Then, the ordered particles on the walls act as substrates, and crystallization proceeds into bulk. When the external force is weak, the close-packed face of the crystal structure is parallel to the bottom wall. The direction of the close-packed face depends on the strength of the external force: The close-packed face becomes parallel to the side walls with a strong external force.

Hajime Yoshino and Francesco Zamponi,
The shear modulus of glasses: results from the full replica symmetry breaking solution,
Physical Review E 90, 022302/1-14 (2014).

[Summary] We compute the shear modulus of amorphous hard and soft spheres, using the exact solution in infinite spatial dimensions that has been developed recently. We characterize the behavior of this observable in the whole phase diagram, and in particular around the glass and jamming transitions. Our results are consistent with other theoretical approaches, which are unified within this general picture, and they are also consistent with numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, we discuss some properties of the out-of-equilibrium dynamics after a deep quench close to the jamming transition, and we show that a combined measure of the shear modulus and of the mean square displacement allows one to probe experimentally the complex structure of phase space predicted by the full replica-symmetry-breaking solution.

*Naoko Nakagawa,
Universal expression for adiabatic pumping in terms of nonequilibrium steady states,
Physical Review E 90, 022108/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] We develop a unified treatment of pumping and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We show that the pumping current generated through an adiabatic mechanical operation in equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the stationary distribution of the corresponding driven nonequilibrium system. We also show that the total transfer in pumping can be evaluated from the work imported to the driven counterpart. These findings lead us to a unified viewpoint for pumping and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

*Takahiro Tanaka, Tomonori Arakawa, Masahiro Maeda, Kensuke Kobayashi, Yoshitaka Nishihara, Teruo Ono, Takayuki Nozaki, Akio Fukushima, and Shinji Yuasa,
Leak current estimated from the shot noise in magnetic tunneling junctions,
Applied Physics Letters 105, 042405/1-4 (2014).

[Summary] We performed the shot noise measurement in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Fe-based magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) with various MgO thicknesses between 1.1 nm and 1.625nm. While the Fano factor to characterize the shot noise is very close to 1 in MTJs with MgO barrier thicker than 1.2nm, the magnetic configuration-dependent reduction of the Fano factor for MTJs with thin MgO barrier was observed, which is mainly due to the existence of leakage current. By using a simple parallel circuit model, we demonstrated that the contribution of the leak current can be sensitively derived from the shot noise.

Suman G. Das, Abhishek Dhar, Keiji Saito, Christian B. Mendl, Herbert Spohn,
Numerical test of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain,
Physical Review E 90, 12124/1-11 (2014).

[Summary] Recent work has developed a nonlinear hydrodynamic fluctuation theory for a chain of coupled anharmonic oscillators governing the conserved fields, namely stretch, momentum, and energy. The linear theory yields two propagating sound modes and one diffusing heat mode. In contrast, the nonlinear theory predicts that, at long times, the sound mode correlations satisfy Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) scaling, while the heat mode correlations satisfies Levy-walk scaling. In the present contribution we report on molecular dynamics simulations of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains to compute various spatiotemporal correlation functions and compare them with the predictions of the theory. We find very good agreement in many cases, but also some deviations.

*Kiyoshi Kanazawa, Takahiro Sagawa, and Hisao Hayakawa,
Energy pumping in electrical circuits under avalanche noise,
Physical Review E 90, 012115/1-8 (2014).

[Summary] We theoretically study energy pumping processes in an electrical circuit with avalanche diodes, where non-Gaussian athermal noise plays a crucial role. We show that a positive amount of energy (work) can be extracted by an external manipulation of the circuit in a cyclic way, even when the system is spatially symmetric. We discuss the properties of the energy pumping process for both quasistatic and finite-time cases, and analytically obtain formulas for the amounts of the work and the power. Our results demonstrate the significance of the non-Gaussianity in energetics of electrical circuits.

Masakazu Yamagishi, Narii Watase, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, and *Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Spin-dependent tunneling rates for electrostatically defined GaAs quantum dot,
Physical Review B 90, 035306 (2014).

[Summary] The tunneling rates for spin-up and -down electrons are investigated for a GaAs quantum dot in an in-plane magnetic field by using a real-time single-electron counting scheme with a nearby charge detector. An extremely small spin-polarized current on the order of attoamperes is analyzed with the spin and energy dependences of the tunneling rates. Fully spin-polarized current is obtained when only a spin-up Zeeman sublevel is located in the transport window. When both Zeeman sublevels are allowed to contribute to the transport, we find that the tunneling rate for spin-up electrons is considerably higher than that for spin-down electrons. This partially spin-polarized current can be explained by the exchange-enhanced spin splitting in low-density regions near the tunneling barriers.

*Jordan M. Horowitz and Takahiro Sagawa,
Equivalent Definitions of the Quantum Nonadiabatic Entropy Production,
Journal of Statistical Physics 156, 55-65 (2014).

[Summary] The nonadiabatic entropy production is a useful tool for the thermodynamic analysis of continuously dissipating, nonequilibrium steady states. For open quantum systems, two seemingly distinct definitions for the nonadiabatic entropy production have appeared in the literature, one based on the quantum relative entropy and the other based on quantum trajectories. We show that these two formulations are equivalent. Furthermore, this equivalence leads us to a proof of the monotonicity of the quantum relative entropy under a special class of completely-positive, trace-preserving quantum maps, which circumvents difficulties associated with the noncommuntative structure of operators.

*Kensaku Chida, Tokuro Hata, Tomonori Arakawa, Sadashige Matsuo, Yoshitaka Nishihara, Takahiro Tanaka, Teruo Ono, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Avalanche electron bunching in a Corbino disk in the quantum Hall effect breakdown regime,
Physical Review B 89, 235318/1-4 (2014).

[Summary] We have measured the current noise in a device with Corbino geometry to investigate the dynamics of electrons in the breakdown regime of the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE). In the breakdown regime, the Fano factor of the current noise exceeds 103, which indicates the presence of electron bunching. As super-Poissonian current noise is observed only in the breakdown regime, the bunching effect is related to the QHE breakdown. These observations support a QHE breakdown mechanism that involves an electron avalanche.

*Norio Kumada, Romain Dubourget, Ken’ichi Sasaki, Shinichi Tanabe, Hiroki Hibino, Hiroshi Kamata, Masayuki Hashisaka, Koji Muraki, Toshimasa Fujisawa,
Plasmon transport and its guiding in graphene,
New Journal of Physics 16, 063055 (2014).

[Summary] Transport of plasmons in graphene has been investigated by time-resolved electrical measurements. We demonstrate that the velocity v (or the refractive index ∝ −v^1) and the characteristic impedance Z of the plasmon mode can be tuned through the carrier density. By exploiting the Z tunability, we present a gate-defined plasmonic waveguide. An important advantage of the gate-defined waveguide is dynamical switching of guiding characteristics with the gate voltages. One can tailor the patterns of gate electrodes to define two output waveguides branching off from a source waveguide, and the output waveguide can be switched by changing the gate voltages. Indeed, we show the routing in a Y-shaped channel: the path for the plasmon transmission can be selected by tuning Z of each path. These results can be well reproduced by simulation, encouraging the design of graphene-based plasmonic devices.

*Jonne V. Koski, Ville F. Maisi, Takahiro Sagawa, and Jukka P. Pekola,
Experimental Observation of the Role of Mutual Information in the Nonequilibrium Dynamics of a Maxwell Demon,
Physical Review Letters 113, 030601/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We validate experimentally a fluctuation relation known as generalized Jarzynski equality governing the work distribution in a feedback-controlled system. The feedback control is performed on a single electron box analogously to the original Szilard engine. In the generalized Jarzynski equality, mutual information is treated on an equal footing with the thermodynamic work. Our measurements provide the first evidence of the role of mutual information in the fluctuation theorem and thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

*Kyogo Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi Sasa, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Nonequilibrium dissipation-free transport in F1-ATPase and the thermodynamic role of asymmetric allosterism,
Biophysical Journal 106, 2450-2457 (2014).

[Summary] F1-ATPase (or F1), the highly-efficient and reversible biochemical engine, has motivated physicists as well as biologists to imagine the design principles governing machines in the fluctuating world. Recent experiments have clarified yet another interesting property of F1; the dissipative heat inside the motor is very small, irrespective of the velocity of rotation and energy transport. Conceptual interest is devoted to the fact that the amount of internal dissipation is not simply determined by the sequence of equilibrium pictures, but also relies on the rotational-angular dependence of nucleotide affinity, which is a truly nonequilibrium aspect. We propose that the totally asymmetric allosteric model (TASAM), where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding to F1 is assumed to have low dependence on the angle of the rotating shaft, produces results that are most consistent with the experiment. Theoretical analysis proves the crucial role of two time scales in the model, which explains the universal mechanism to produce the internal dissipation-free feature. The model reproduces the characteristic torque dependence of the rotational velocity of F1, and predicts that the internal dissipation upon the ATP synthesis direction rotation becomes large at the low nucleotide condition.

*Kyogo Kawaguchi, Shin-ichi Sasa, and Takahiro Sagawa,
Nonequilibrium Dissipation-free Transport in F1-ATPase and the Thermodynamic Role of Asymmetric Allosterism,
Biophysical Journal 106, 2450–2457 (2014).

[Summary] F1-ATPase (or F1), the highly efficient and reversible biochemical engine, has motivated physicists as well as biologists to imagine the design principles governing machines in the fluctuating world. Recent experiments have clarified yet another interesting property of F1; the dissipative heat inside the motor is very small, irrespective of the velocity of rotation and energy transport. Conceptual interest is devoted to the fact that the amount of internal dissipation is not simply determined by the sequence of equilibrium pictures, but also relies on the rotational-angular dependence of nucleotide affinity, which is a truly nonequilibrium aspect. We propose that the totally asymmetric allosteric model (TASAM), where adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding to F1 is assumed to have low dependence on the angle of the rotating shaft, produces results that are most consistent with the experiments. Theoretical analysis proves the crucial role of two time scales in the model, which explains the universal mechanism to produce the internal dissipation-free feature. The model reproduces the characteristic torque dependence of the rotational velocity of F1 and predicts that the internal dissipation upon the ATP synthesis direction rotation becomes large at the low nucleotide condition.

*Hiroki Ohta and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Jamming transition in kinetically constrained models with the parity symmetry,
Journal of Statistical Physics 155, 827-842 (2014).

[Summary] A class of kinetically constrained models with reflection symmetry is proposed as an extension ofthe Fredrickson-Andersen model. It is proved that the proposed model on the square lattice exhibits a freezingtransition at a non-trivial density. It is conjectured by numerical experiments that the known mechanism of thesingular behaviors near the freezing transition in a previously studied model (spiral model) is not responsiblefor that in the proposed model.

*Masayuki Hashisaka, Tomoaki Ota, Masakazu Yamagishi, Toshimasa Fujisawa and Koji Muraki,
Cross-correlation measurement of quantum shot noise using homemade transimpedance amplifiers,
Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 054704 (2014).

[Summary] We report a cross-correlation measurement system, based on a new approach, which can be used to measure shot noise in a mesoscopic conductor at milliKelvin temperatures. In contrast to other measurement systems in which high-speed low-noise voltage amplifiers are commonly used, our system employs homemade transimpedance amplifiers (TAs). The low input impedance of the TAs signifi-cantly reduces the crosstalk caused by unavoidable parasitic capacitance between wires. The TAs are designed to have a flat gain over a frequency band from 2 kHz to 1 MHz. Low-noise performance is attained by installing the TAs at a 4 K stage of a dilution refrigerator. Our system thus fulfills the technical requirements for cross-correlation measurements: low noise floor, high frequency band, and negligible crosstalk between two signal lines. Using our system, shot noise generated at a quantum point contact embedded in a quantum Hall system is measured. The good agreement between the obtained shot-noise data and theoretical predictions demonstrates the accuracy of the measurements.

Masato Itami and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Macroscopically measurable force induced by temperature discontinuities at solid-gas interfaces,
Physical Review E 89, 052106/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] We consider a freely movable solid that separates a long tube into two regions, each of which isfilled with a dilute gas. The gases in each region are initially prepared at the same pressure butdifferent temperatures. Under the assumption that the pressure and temperatures of gas particlesbefore colliding with the solid are kept constant over time, we show that temperature gaps appearingon the solid surface generate a force. We provide a quantitative estimation of the force, which turnsout to be large enough to be observed by a macroscopic measurement.

*Kenji Tanabe, Ryo Matsumoto, Jun-ichiro Ohe, Shuichi Murakami, Takahiro Moriyama, Daichi Chiba, Kensuke Kobayashi, and Teruo Ono,
Real-time observation of Snell’s law for spin waves in a thin ferromagnetic film,
Applied Physics Express 7, 053001/1-4 (2014).

[Summary] We report the real-time observation of spin-wave propagation across a step inserted between two ferromagnetic films with different thicknesses. Because the dispersion relation of the spin wave depends on the thickness of the film, the step works as a junction to affect the spin wave propagation. When the spin wave transmits through the junction, the wavenumber undergoes modulation as per Snell’s law, which states that the refraction index is proportional to the wavenumber. From the viewpoint of magnonics, the present achievement opens up new possibilities of controlling the wavenumber of spin waves.

Julian Stark, Kay Brandner, Keiji Saito, and Udo Seifert,
A Classical Nernst Engine,
Physical Review Letters 112, 140601/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We introduce a simple model for an engine based on the Nernst effect. In the presence of a magnetic field, a vertical heat current can drive a horizontal particle current against a chemical potential. For a microscopic model invoking classical particle trajectories subject to the Lorentz force, we prove a universal bound 0.172 for the ratio between the maximum efficiency and the Carnot efficiency. This bound, as the slightly lower one 1/6 for efficiency at maximum power, can indeed be saturated for a large magnetic field and small fugacity.

*Takahiro Sagawa,
Thermodynamic and Logical Reversibilities Revisited,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics, 1-33 (2014).

[Summary] We review and investigate the general theory of the thermodynamics of computation, and derive the fundamental inequalities that set the lower bounds of the work requirement and the heat emission during a computation. These inequalities constitute the generalized Landauer principle, where the information contents are involved in the second law of thermodynamics. We discuss in detail the relationship between the thermodynamic and logical reversibilities; the former is related to the entropy production in the total system including a heat bath, while the latter is related to the entropy change only in the logical states of the memory. In particular, we clarify that any logically irreversible computation can be performed in a thermodynamically reversible manner in the quasi-static limit, which does not contradict the conventional Landauer principle. Our arguments would serve as the theoretical foundation of the thermodynamics of computation in terms of modern statistical physics.

*Shin-ichi Sasa,
Derivation of hydrodynamics from the Hamiltonian description of particle systems,
Physical Review Letters 112, 100602 (2014).

[Summary] Hamiltonian particle systems may exhibit non-linear hydrodynamic phenomena as the time evolution of the density fields of energy, momentum, and mass. In this Letter, an exact equation describing the time evolution is derived assuming the local Gibbs distribution at initial time. The key concept in the derivation is an identity similar to the fluctuation theorems. The Navier-Stokes equation is obtained as a result of simple perturbation expansions in a small parameter that represents the scale separation.

*Takahiro Nemoto, and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Computation of large deviation statistics via iterative measurement-and-feedback procedure,
Physical Review Letters 112, 090602/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We propose a computational method for large deviation statistics of time-averaged quantities in general Markov processes. In our proposed method, we repeat a response measurement against external forces, where the forces are determined by the previous measurement as a feedback. Consequently, we obtain a set of stationary states corresponding to an exponential family of distributions, each of which shows rare events in the original system as the typical behavior. As a demonstration of our method, we study large deviation statistics of one-dimensional lattice gas models.

*Masahito Ueda and Shin-ichi Sasa,
Calculation of 1RSB transition temperature of spin glass models on regular random graphs under the replica symmetric ansatz,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment P02005/1-21 (2014).

[Summary] We study p-spin glass models on regular random graphs.By analyzing the Franz-Parisi potential with a two-body cavity field approximation under the replica symmetric ansatz, we obtain a good approximation of the 1RSB transition temperature for $p=3$. Our calculation method is much easier than the 1RSB cavity method because the result is obtained by solving self-consistent equations with Newton's method.

*Shin-ichi Sasa,
Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment , P01004/1-16 (2014).

[Summary] Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizesa fundamental limitation of operations by the second lawof thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted,we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy.

*Kazumasa A. Takeuchi,
Experimental approaches to universal out-of-equilibrium scaling laws: turbulent liquid crystal and other developments,
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment P01006/1-28 (2014).

[Summary] This is a brief survey of recent experimental studies on out-of-equilibrium scaling laws, focusing on two prominent situations where nontrivial universality classes have been identified theoretically: absorbing-state phase transitions and growing interfaces. First the paper summarizes the main results obtained for electrically driven turbulent liquid crystals, which exhibited the scaling laws for the directed percolation class at the transition between two turbulent regimes, and those for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang class in the supercritical phase where one turbulent regime invades the other. Other experimental investigations on these universality classes and related situations are then overviewed and discussed. Some remarks on analyses of these scaling laws are also given from the practical viewpoint.

Takeshi Kuroiwa and *Kunimasa Miyazaki,
Brownian motion with multiplicative noises revisited,
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 47, 012001/1-8 (2014).

[Summary] The Langevin equation with multiplicative noise and a state-dependent transport coefficient should always complemented with the proper interpretation rule of the noise, such as the Itˆo and Stratonovich conventions. Although the mathematical relationship between the different rules and how to translate from one rule to another are well established, the subject of which is amore physically natural rule still remains controversial. In this communication, we derive the overdamped Langevin equation with multiplicative noise for Brownian particles, by systematically eliminating the fast degrees of freedomof the underdamped Langevin equation. The Langevin equations obtained here vary depending on the choice of the noise conventions but they are different representations for an identical phenomenon. The results apply to multivariable, nonequilibrium, non-stationary systems, and other general settings.

Johannes-Geert Hagmann, Naoko Nakagawa, and *Michel Peyrard,
Characterization of the low-temperature properties of a simplified protein model,
Physical Review E 89, 012705/1-13 (2014).

[Summary] Prompted by results that showed that a simple protein model, the frustrated Go ̄ model, appears to exhibit a transition reminiscent of the protein dynamical transition, we examine the validity of this model to describe the low-temperature properties of proteins. First, we examine equilibrium fluctuations. We calculate its incoherent neutron-scattering structure factor and show that it can be well described by a theory using the one-phonon approximation. By performing an inherent structure analysis, we assess the transitions among energy states at low temperatures. Then, we examine nonequilibrium fluctuations after a sudden cooling of the protein. We investigate the violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in order to analyze the protein glass transition. We find that the effective temperature of the quenched protein deviates from the temperature of the thermostat, however it relaxes towards the actual temperature with an Arrhenius behavior as the waiting time increases. These results of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium studies converge to the conclusion that the apparent dynamical transition of this coarse-grained model cannot be attributed to a glassy behavior.

*Hirokazu Tanimoto and Masaki Sano,
A simple force-motion relation for migrating cells revealed by multipole analysis of traction stress,
Biophysical Journal 106, 16-25 (2014).

[Summary] For biophysical understanding of cell motility, the relationship between mechanical force and cell migration must be uncovered, but it remains elusive. Since cells migrate at small scale in dissipative circumstances, the inertia force is negligible and all forces should cancel out. This implies that one must quantify the spatial pattern of the force instead of just the summation to elucidate the force-motion relation. Here, we introduced multipole analysis to quantify the traction stress dynamics of migrating cells. We measured the traction stress of Dictyostelium discoideum cells and investigated the lowest two moments, the force dipole and quadrupole moments, which reflect rotational and front-rear asymmetries of the stress field. We derived a simple force-motion relation in which cells migrate along the force dipole axis with a direction determined by the force quadrupole. Furthermore, as a complementary approach, we also investigated fine structures in the stress field that show front-rear asymmetric kinetics consistent with the multipole analysis. The tight force-motion relation enables us to predict cell migration only from the traction stress patterns.


*Takahiro Sagawa and Masahito Ueda,
Role of mutual information in entropy production under information exchanges,
New Journal of Physics 15, 125012/1-23 (2013).

[Summary] We relate the information exchange between two stochastic systems to the nonequilibrium entropy production in the whole system. By deriving a general formula that decomposes the total entropy production into the thermodynamic and informational parts, we obtain nonequilibrium equalities such as the fluctuation theorem in the presence of information processing. Our results apply not only to situations under measurement and feedback control but also to those under multiple information exchanges between two systems, giving the fundamental energy cost for information processing and elucidating the thermodynamic and informational roles of a memory in information processing. We point out a dual relationship between measurement and feedback.

*Jung Jun Park, Kang-Hwan Kim, Takahiro Sagawa, and Sang Wook Kim,
Heat Engine Driven by Purely Quantum Information,
Physical Review Letters 111, 230402/1-5 (2013).

[Summary] The key question of this Letter is whether work can be extracted from a heat engine by using purely quantum mechanical information. If the answer is yes, what is its mathematical formula? First, by using a bipartite memory we show that the work extractable from a heat engine is bounded not only by the free energy change and the sum of the entropy change of an individual memory but also by the change of quantum mutual information contained inside the memory. We then find that the engine can be driven by purely quantum information, expressed as the so-called quantum discord, forming a part of the quantum mutual information. To confirm it, as a physical example we present the Szilard engine containing a diatomic molecule with a semipermeable wall.

*Keiji Saito and Takeo Kato,
Kondo signature in heat transfer via a local two-state system,
Physical Review Letters 111, 214301/1-4 (2013).

[Summary] We study the Kondo effect in heat transport via a local two-state system. This system is described by the spin-boson Hamiltonian with Ohmic dissipation, which can be mapped onto the Kondo model with anisotropic exchange coupling. We calculate thermal conductance by the Monte Carlo method based on the exact formula. Thermal conductance has a scaling form κ=(k2BTK/)f(α,T/TK), where TK and α indicate the Kondo temperature and dimensionless coupling strength, respectively. Temperature dependence of conductance is classified by the Kondo temperature as κ(T/TK)3 for TTK and κ(kBT/ωc)2α1 for TTK. Similarities to the Kondo signature in electric transport are discussed.

*Hiroyuki Ebata and Masaki Sano,
Bifurcation from stable holes to replicating holes in vibrated dense suspensions,
Physical Review E 88, 053007/1-8 (2013).

[Summary] In vertically vibrated starch suspensions, we observe bifurcations from stable holes to replicating holes. Abovea certain acceleration, finite-amplitude deformations of the vibrated surface continue to grow until void penetratesfluid layers, and a hole forms. We studied experimentally and theoretically the parameter dependence of the holesand their stabilities. In suspensions of small dispersed particles, the circular shapes of the holes are stable. However,we find that larger particles or lower surface tension of water destabilize the circular shapes; this indicates theimportance of capillary forces acting on the dispersed particles. Around the critical acceleration for bifurcation,holes show intermittent large deformations as a precursor to hole replication. We applied a phenomenologicalmodel for deformable domains, which is used in reaction-diffusion systems. The model can explain the basicdynamics of the holes, such as intermittent behavior, probability distribution functions of deformation, and timeintervals of replication. Results from the phenomenological model match the linear growth rate below criticalitythat was estimated from experimental data.

*Patrik L. Ferrari, Tomohiro Sasamoto, Herbert Spohn,
Coupled Kardar-Parisi-Zhang Equations in One Dimension,
Journal of Statistical Physics 153, 377-399 (2013).

[Summary] Over the past years our understanding of the scaling properties of the solutions to the one-dimensional KPZ equation has advanced considerably, both theoretically and experimentally. In our contribution we export these insights to the case of coupled KPZ equations in one dimension. We establish equivalence with nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamics for multi-component driven stochastic lattice gases. To check the predictions of the theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations of the two-component AHR model. Its steady state is computed using the matrix product ansatz. Thereby all coefficients appearing in the coupled KPZ equations are deduced from the microscopic model. Time correlations in the steady state are simulated and we confirm not only the scaling exponent, but also the scaling function and the non-universal coefficients.

*Tatsuro Yuge, Takahiro Sagawa, Ayumu Sugita, and Hisao Hayakawa,
Geometrical Excess Entropy Production in Nonequilibrium Quantum Systems,
Journal of Statistical Physics 153, 412-441 (2013).

[Summary] For open systems described by the quantum Markovian master equation, we study a possible extension of the Clausius equality to quasistatic operations between nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). We investigate the excess heat divided by temperature (i.e., excess entropy production) which is transferred into the system during the operations. We derive a geometrical expression for the excess entropy production, which is analogous to the Berry phase in unitary evolution. Our result implies that in general one cannot define a scalar potential whose difference coincides with the excess entropy production in a thermodynamic process, and that a vector potential plays a crucial role in the thermodynamics for NESSs. In the weakly nonequilibrium regime, we show that the geometrical expression reduces to the extended Clausius equality derived by Saito and Tasaki (J. Stat. Phys. 145:1275, 2011). As an example, we investigate a spinless electron system in quantum dots. We find that one can define a scalar potential when the parameters of only one of the reservoirs are modified in a non-interacting system, but this is no longer the case for an interacting system.

Sosuke Ito and Takahiro Sagawa,
Information Thermodynamics on Causal Networks,
Physical Review Letters 111, 180603/1-6 (2013).

[Summary] We study nonequilibrium thermodynamics of complex information flows induced by interactions between multiple fluctuating systems. Characterizing nonequilibrium dynamics by causal networks (i.e., Bayesian networks), we obtain novel generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the fluctuation theorem, which include an informational quantity characterized by the topology of the causal network. Our result implies that the entropy production in a single system in the presence of multiple other systems is bounded by the information flow between these systems. We demonstrate our general result by a simple model of biochemical adaptation.

*Sang Wook Kim, Kang-Hwan Kim, Takahiro Sagawa, Simone De Liberato, and Masahito Ueda,
Kim et al. Reply:,
Physical Review Letters 111, 188902/1 (2013).

[Summary] A Reply to the Comment by M. Plesch et al.

*Sadashige Matsuo, Kensaku Chida, Daichi Chiba, Teruo Ono, Keith Slevin, Kensuke Kobayashi, Tomi Ohtsuki, Cui-Zu Chang, Ke He, Xu-Cun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue,
Experimental Proof of Universal Conductance Fluctuation in Quasi-1D Epitaxial Bi2Se3 Wires,
Physical Review B 88, 155438/1-8 (2013).

[Summary] We report on conductance fluctuation in quasi-one-dimensional wires made of epitaxial Bi2Se3 thin film. We found that this type of fluctuation decreases as the wire length becomes longer and that the amplitude of the fluctuation is well scaled to the coherence, thermal diffusion, and wire lengths, as predicted by conventional universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) theory. Additionally, the amplitude of the fluctuation can be understood to be equivalent to the UCF amplitude of a system with strong spin-orbit interaction and no time-reversal symmetry. These results indicate that the conductance fluctuation in Bi2Se3 wires is explainable through UCF theory. This work verifies the scaling relationship of UCF in a system with strong spin-orbit interaction.

*Tomonori Arakawa, Yoshitaka Nishihara, Masahiro Maeda, Shota Norimoto, and Kensuke Kobayashi,
Cryogenic amplifier for shot noise measurement at 20 mK,
Applied Physics Letters 103, 172104/1-4 (2013).

[Summary] We developed a shot noise measurement system for mesoscopic conductors (typical resistance h/2e^2) at very low temperature (20 mK). To realize required high-resolution measurement, we made a high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT)-based cryogenic amplifier working at a target frequency range (@2.5 MHz), whose gain flatness and input voltage noise were carefully tuned. We can suppress the 1/f noise of the amplifier by using two HEMTs in parallel. The performance of the noise measurement system at 20mK was demonstrated for a quantum point contact with high experimental accuracy below 10^-29 A^2/Hz.

Takashi Imamura, *Tomohiro Sasamoto, Herbert Spohn,
On the equal time two-point distribution of the one-dimensional KPZ equation by replica,
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical 46, 355002/1-9 (2013).

[Summary] In a recent contribution, Dotsenko establishes a Fredholm determinant formula for the two-point distribution of the Kardar–Parisi–Zhang equation in the long time limit and starting from narrow wedge initial conditions. We establish that his expression is identical to the Fredholm determinant resulting from the Airy2 process.

*Jonne V. Koski, Takahiro Sagawa, O-P. Saira, Y. Yoon, A. Kutvonen, P. Solinas, M. Möttönen, T. Ala-Nissila, and Jukka P. Pekola,
Distribution of entropy production in a single-electron box,
Nature Physics 9, 644-648 (2013).

[Summary] Recently, the fundamental laws of thermodynamics have been reconsidered for small systems. The discovery of the fluctuation relations has spurred theoretical and experimental studies. The concept of entropy production has been extended to the microscopic level by considering stochastic trajectories of a system coupled to a heat bath. However, this has not been studied experimentally if there are multiple thermal baths present. Here, we measure, with high precision, the distributions of microscopic entropy production in a single-electron box consisting of two islands with a tunnel junction. The islands are coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures, maintaining a steady thermal non-equilibrium. We demonstrate that stochastic entropy production from trajectories of electronic transitions is related to thermodynamic entropy production from dissipated heat in the respective thermal baths. We verify experimentally that the fluctuation relations for both definitions are satisfied. Our results reveal the subtlety of irreversible entropy production in non-equilibrium.

*Kang Kim, Shinji Saito, Kunimasa Miyazaki, Giulio Biroli, and *David R. Reichman,
Dynamic Length Scales in Glass-Forming Liquids: An Inhomogeneous Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach,
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 117, 13259–13267 (2013).

[Summary] In this work, we numerically investigate a new method for the characterization of growing length scales associated with spatially heterogeneous dynamics of glass-forming liquids. This approach, motivated by the formulation of the inhomogeneous mode-coupling theory (IMCT) [Biroli, G.; et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006 97, 195701], utilizes inhomogeneous molecular dynamics simulations in which the system is perturbed by a spatially modulated external potential. We show that the response of the two-point correlation function to the external field allows one to probe dynamic correlations. We examine the critical properties shown by this function, in particular, the associated dynamic correlation length, that is found to be comparable to the one extracted from standardly employed four-point correlation functions. Our numerical results are in qualitative agreement with IMCT predictions but suggest that one has to take into account fluctuations not included in this mean-field approach to reach quantitative agreement. Advantages of our approach over the more conventional one based on four-point correlation functions are discussed.

*Jordan M. Horowitz, Takahiro Sagawa, and Juan M. R. Parrondo,
Imitating Chemical Motors with Optimal Information Motors,
Physical Review Letters 111, 010602/1-5 (2013).

[Summary] To induce transport, detailed balance must be broken. A common mechanism is to bias the dynamics with a thermodynamic fuel, such as chemical energy. An intriguing, alternative strategy is for a Maxwell demon to effect the bias using feedback. We demonstrate that these two different mechanisms lead to distinct thermodynamics by contrasting a chemical motor and information motor with identical dynamics. To clarify this difference, we study both models within one unified framework, highlighting the role of the interaction between the demon and the motor. This analysis elucidates the manner in which information is incorporated into a physical system.

*Kiyoshi Kanazawa, Takahiro Sagawa, and Hisao Hayakawa,
Heat conduction induced by non-Gaussian athermal fluctuations,
Physical Review E 87, 052124/1-10 (2013).

[Summary] We study the properties of heat conduction induced by non-Gaussian noises from athermal environments. We find that new terms should be added to the conventional Fourier law and the fluctuation theorem for the heat current, where its average and fluctuation are determined not only by the noise intensities but also by the non-Gaussian nature of the noises. Our results explicitly show the absence of the zeroth law of thermodynamics in athermal systems.