Paper | Original Paper


*Hiroshi Orihara, Yuko Harada, Fumiaki Kobayashi, Yuji Sasaki, Shuji Fujii, Yuki Satou, Yoshitomo Goto, and *Tomoyuki Nagaya,
Negative viscosity of a liquid crystal in the presence of turbulence,
Physical Review E, in press.

[Summary] We report on the discovery of enormous negative viscosity in a nematic liquid crystal in the presence of turbulence induced by electric fields. As the negative viscosity in this system is so large, we were able to observe several novel phenomena originating from it. For example, we observed a spontaneous shear flow that rotates the upper disc of a rheometer, as well as the reversal of the rotational direction upon applying an external torque in the opposite direction. Hysteresis loops were also observed in the shear stress-shear rate curves, which is reminiscent of those seen for ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials. The similarities between the phenomena observed for our system and ferroic materials were comprehensively demonstrated, although the two systems are fundamentally different in that the former is out of equilibrium. We elucidate the origin of the negative viscosity and propose a simple model that reproduces the phenomena observed in this active fluid.

Takikawa Yoshinori, Yasuta Muneharu, Fujii Shuji, Orihara Hiroshi, Tanaka Yoshimi, and Nishinari Katsuyoshi,
Anomalous diffusion of particles dispersed in xanthan solutions subjected to shear flow,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 87, 054005/1-4 (2018).

[Summary] Xanthan gum exhibits viscoelastic and shear-thinning properties. We investigate the Brownian motion of particlesdispersed in xanthan gum solutions that are subjected to simple shear flow. The mean square displacements (MSDs) are obtained in both the flow and vorticity directions. In the absence of shear flow, subdiffusion is observed, MSD ∝ t^α with α < 1, where t is time. In the presence of shear flow, however, the exponent α becomes larger together with the MSD itself in both the flow and vorticity directions. We show that the diffusion is enhanced by Taylor dispersion in the flow direction, whereas in the vorticity direction it is enhanced by nonthermal self-diffusion.

*Hiroyuki Kitahata, Natsuhiko Yoshinaga,
Effective diffusion coefficient including the Marangoni effect,
Journal of Chemical Physics 148, 134906/1-8 (2018).

[Summary] Surface-active molecules supplied from a particle fixed at the water surface create a spatial gradient of the molecule concentration, resulting in Marangoni convection. Convective flow transports the molecules far from the particle, enhancing diffusion. We analytically derive the effective diffusion coefficient associated with the Marangoni convection rolls. The resulting estimated effective diffusion coefficient is consistent with our numerical results and the apparent diffusion coefficient measured in experiments.

Kui-Tian Xi, Tim Byrnes, and Hiroki Saito,
Fingering instabilities and pattern formation in a two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review A 97, 023625/1-9 (2018).

[Summary] We study fingering instabilities and pattern formation at the interface of an oppositely polarized two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interactions in three dimensions. It is shown that the rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken by fingering instability when the dipole-dipole interactions are strengthened. Frog-shaped and mushroom-shaped patterns emerge during the dynamics due to the dipolar interactions. We also demonstrate the spontaneous density modulation and domain growth of a two-component dipolar BEC in the dynamics. Bogoliubov analyses in the two-dimensional approximation are performed, and the characteristic lengths of the domains are estimated analytically. Patterns resembling those in magnetic classical fluids are modulated when the number ratio of atoms, the trap ratio of the external potential, or tilted polarization with respect to the z direction is varied.

Naoki Irikura, Yujiro Eto, Takuya Hirano, and *Hiroki Saito,
Ground-state phases of a mixture of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 97, 023622/1-10 (2018).

[Summary] We investigate the ground-state phases of a mixture of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates at zero magnetic field. In addition to the intraspin interactions, two spin-dependent interaction coefficients are introduced to describe the interspin interaction. We systematically explore the wide parameter space, and obtain phase diagrams containing a rich variety of phases. For example, there exists a phase in which the spin-1 and spin-2 vectors are tilted relative to each other breaking the axial symmetry.

Yujiro Eto, Hitoshi Shibayama, Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Spinor dynamics in a mixture of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 97, 021602(R)/1-5 (2018).

[Summary] The spinor dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb atoms with hyperfine spins of 1 and 2 areinvestigated. A mixture of spinor condensates is generated in the transversely polarized spin-1 and thelongitudinally polarized spin-2 states using simultaneous Ramsey interferometry. In the subsequent dynamics,temporal modulation of spin-1 magnetization is observed in the spinor mixture due to the spin-dependentinteraction with the spin-2 component. By comparison with numerical simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskiiequation, we find that the observed nonferromagnetic dynamics reflect the ground-state properties of the spinormixture.

Masakazu Kuze, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Oliver Steinbock, and *Satoshi Nakata,
Distinguishing the dynamic fingerprints of two- and three-dimensional chemical waves in microbeads,
Journal of Physical Chemistry A 122, 1967-1971 (2018).

[Summary] Spatio-temporal oscillations confined to quasi-2D surface layers or 3D volumes play an important role for wave-induced information relay and global oscillations in living systems. Here, we describe experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction confined to microbeads in which the catalyst is selectively loaded either onto the surface or into the body of the spherical beads. We find that the dynamics of global oscillations, traveling reaction fronts, and rotating spiral waves under surface confinement are strikingly different from those in the bead volume. Our results establish a useful model system for the study of geometrical effects on nonlinear chemical processes and provide diagnostic features that allow the distinction of membrane-mediated 2D and cytosolic 3D processes in biological cells.

Ryoichi Tenno, You Gunjima, Miyu Yoshii, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Jerzy Gorecki, Nobuhiko Jessis Suematsu, and *Satoshi Nakata,
Period of oscillatory motion of a camphor boat determined by the dissolution and diffusion of camphor molecules,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122, 2610-2615 (2018).

[Summary] We investigated the oscillatory motion of a camphor boat on water to clarify how the dynamics of camphor concentration profile determines the period of oscillation. The boat, which was made of a plastic plate and a camphor disk, was glued below the plate at a distance from the edge. The dependence of oscillation period on temperature and viscosity of the water phase were measured in experiments. We reproduced the experimental results by calculating the period of oscillatory motion by considering the experimental values of physicochemical parameters, describing the time evolution of camphor concentration profile and the friction acting on a boat, such as: diffusion and dissolution rates of camphor, viscosity of the water phase, and the threshold concentration of camphor necessary to accelerate the boat from the resting state. The increase in period of oscillatory motion at low temperatures was explained by the reduced dissolution rate of camphor into the water phase.

*Satoshi Nakata, Katsuhiko Kayahara, Hiroya Yamamoto, Paulina Skrobanska, Jerzy Gorecki, Akinori Awazu, Hiraku Nishimori, and Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Reciprocating motion of a self-propelled rotor induced by forced halt and release operations,
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 122, 3482-3487 (2018).

[Summary] We studied rotational motion of a symmetric self-propelled object on water under periodic halt and release operations with an external force. We propose a novel system in which the direction of rotation inverts after each halt-and-release operation. The considered self-propelled object was composed of a hexagonal plastic plate with a small orifice in the center. Six camphor disks were glued to one side of the plate at the corners. The plate was placed on the water surface and could rotate around a vertical axis located in the center. The initial direction of rotation, either clockwise or counterclockwise, depended on initial conditions. We discovered that, after a temporal halt of the rotor by the external force and next release, the direction of rotation inverted spontaneously. The probability of such inversion was studied as a function of the halt time, release time, area of the plastic plate, and stirring rate of the water phase. The distribution of camphor molecules around a camphor disk was visualized. We explain the mechanism of inversion by the coupling between the camphor distribution on water and the inertial water flow.

Kazuya Maeda, Takayuki Narumi, Rinto Anugraha, Hirotaka Okabe, Kazuhiro Hara, *Yoshiki Hidaka,
Sub-Diffusion in Electroconvective Turbulence of Homeotropic Nematic Liquid Crystals,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 87, 014401/1-5 (2018).

[Summary] Diffusion resulting from turbulence corresponding to dynamic scattering mode 1 (DSM1) of electroconvection was studied in experiments on homeotropically aligned systems of nematic liquid crystals. In such systems, electroconvection displays peculiar nonlinear phenomena arising from the interaction between its convection and the nematic director yielding Nambu–Goldstone modes. From an analogy with Brownian motion, the motion of tagged particles driven by the turbulence was analyzed using the time-dependent coefficient of diffusion, defined as the mean-square displacement divided by time. The results indicate that sub-diffusion occurs in a certain time range, suggesting that turbulence causes particles to rebound. Detailed observations of turbulence structures revealed that rebounding is induced by characteristic linear structures of the nematic director caused by turbulence. This sub-diffusion arising from the interaction between the nematic director and turbulence is specific to nematic liquid crystals.

∗Yoshiki Hidaka, Kosuke Ijigawa, Seung-Yong Kwak, Noriko Oikawa, Hirotaka Okabe, Kazuhiro Hara,
Information Reduction for Chaotic Patterns,
Forma 33, S3-S7 (2018).

[Summary] To investigate the universality and diversity of spatiotemporal chaos, information reduction, which describes phenomena using generalized quantities such as amplitude and phase, is an important technique. Several methods of image analysis are presented for information reduction of experimental image data of spatiotemporal chaos.


Takafumi Tomita, Shuta Nakajima, Ippei Danshita, Yosuke Takasu and Yoshiro Takahashi,
Observation of the Mott insulator to superfluid crossover of a driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard system,
Science Advances 3, e1701513 (2017).

[Summary] Dissipation is ubiquitous in nature and plays a crucial role in quantum systems such as causing decoherence of quantum states. Recently, much attention has been paid to an intriguing possibility of dissipation as an efficient tool for the preparation and manipulation of quantum states. We report the realization of successful demonstration of a novel role of dissipation in a quantum phase transition using cold atoms. We realize an engineered dissipative Bose-Hubbard system by introducing a controllable strength of two-body inelastic collision via photoassociation for ultracold bosons in a three-dimensional optical lattice. In the dynamics subjected to a slow ramp-down of the optical lattice, we find that strong on-site dissipation favors the Mott insulating state: The melting of the Mott insulator is delayed, and the growth of the phase coherence is suppressed. The controllability of the dissipation is highlighted by quenching the dissipation, providing a novel method for investigating a quantum many-body state and its nonequilibrium dynamics.

*Hiroki Saito, Masaya Kato,
Machine Learning Technique to Find Quantum Many-Body Ground States of Bosons on a Lattice,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 87, 014001/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We have developed a variational method to obtain many-body ground states of the Bose–Hubbard model using feedforward artificial neural networks. A fully connected network with a single hidden layer works better than a fully connected network with multiple hidden layers, and a multilayer convolutional network is more efficient than a fully connected network. AdaGrad and Adam are optimization methods that work well. Moreover, we show that many-body ground states with different numbers of particles can be generated by a single network.

Mateusz Borkowski, Alexei A. Buchachenko, Roman Ciuryło, Paul S. Julienne, Hirotaka Yamada, Yuu Kikuchi, Kakeru Takahashi, Yosuke Takasu, and Yoshiro Takahashi,
Beyond-Born-Oppenheimer effects in sub-kHz-precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms,
Physical Review A 96, 063405 (2017).

[Summary] We present high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates of ytterbium atoms. The use of narrow Raman resonances and careful examination of systematic shifts enabled us to measure 13 bound-state energies for three isotopologues of the ground-state ytterbium molecule with standard uncertainties of the order of 500 Hz. The atomic interactions are modeled using an ab initio based mass-scaled Born-Oppenheimer potential whose long-range van der Waals parameters and total WKB phase are fitted to experimental data. We find that the quality of the fit of this model, of about 112.9 kHz (rms) can be significantly improved by adding the recently calculated beyond-Born-Oppenheimer (BBO) adiabatic corrections [J. J. Lutz and J. M. Hutson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 43 (2016)] and by partially treating the nonadiabatic effects using distance-dependent reduced masses. Our BBO interaction model represents the experimental data to within about 30.2 kHz on average, which is 3.7 times better than the “reference” Born-Oppenheimer model. We calculate the s-wave scattering lengths for bosonic isotopic pairs of ytterbium atoms with error bars over two orders of magnitude smaller than previous determinations. For example, the s-wave scattering length for Yb174 is +5.55812(50) nm.

*Shin-Ichiro Ei, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Yuki Koyano, Masaharu Nagayama,
Interaction of non-radially symmetric camphor particles,
Physica D 366, 10-26 (2017).

[Summary] In this study, the interaction between two non-radially symmetric camphor particles is theoretically investigated and the equation describing the motion is derived as an ordinary differential system for the locations and the rotations. In particular, slightly modified non-radially symmetric cases from radial symmetry are extensively investigated and explicit motions are obtained. For example, it is theoretically shown that elliptically deformed camphor particles interact so as to be parallel with major axes. Such predicted motions are also checked by real experiments and numerical simulations.

*Yuji sasaki, Motoshi Ueda, Khoa V. Le, Reo Amano, Shin Sakane, Shuji Fujii, Fumito Araoka, and Hiroshi Orihara,
Polymer-stabilized micropixelated liquid crystals with tunable optical properties fabricated by double templating,
Advanced Materials 29, 1703054/1-7 (2017).

[Summary] Self-organized nano- and microstructures of soft materials are attracting considerable attention because most of them are stimuli-responsive due to their soft nature. In this regard, topological defects in liquid crystals (LCs) are promising not only for self-assembling colloids and molecules but also for electro-optical applications such as optical vortex generation. However, there are currently few bottom-up methods for patterning a large number of defects periodically over a large area. It would be highly desirable to develop more effective techniques for high-throughput and low-cost fabrication. Here, a micropixelated LC structure consisting of a square array of topological defects is stabilized by photopolymerization. A polymer network is formed on the structure of a self-organized template of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and this in turn imprints other nonpolymerizable NLC molecules, which maintains their responses to electric field and temperature. Photocuring of specific local regions is used to create a designable template for the reproducible selforganization of defects. Moreover, a highly diluted polymer network (≈0.1 wt% monomer) exhibits instant on–off switching of the patterns. Beyond the mere stabilization of patterns, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of self-organized NLC patterns offers some unique and unconventional applications for anisotropic polymer networks.

Schenz Daniel, Yasuaki Shima, Shigeru Kuroda, Toshiyuki Nakagaki and *Kei-ichi Ueda,
A mathematical model for adaptive vein formation during exploratory migration of Physarum polycephalum: routing while scouting,
Journal of Physics: Applied Physics 50, 434001/1-14 (2017).

[Summary] Exploring free space (scouting) ef ciently is a non-trivial task for organisms of limited perception, such as the amoeboid Physarum polycephalum. However, the strategy behind its exploratory behaviour has not yet been characterised. In this organism, as the extension of the frontal part into free space is directly supported by the transport of body mass from behind, the formation of transport channels (routing) plays the main role in that strategy. Here, we study the organism’s exploration by letting it expand through a corridor of constant width. When turning at a corner of the corridor, the organism constructed a main transport vein tracing a centre-in-centre line. We argue that this is ef cient for mass transport due to its short length, and check this intuition with a new algorithm that can predict the main vein’s position from the frontal tip’s progression. We then present a numerical model that incorporates reaction-diffusion dynamics for the behaviour of the organism’s growth front and current reinforcement dynamics for the formation of the vein network in its wake, as well as interactions between the two. The accuracy of the model is tested against the behaviour of the real organism and the importance of the interaction between growth tip dynamics and vein network development is analysed by studying variants of the model. We conclude by offering a biological interpretation of the well-known current reinforcement rule in the context of the natural exploratory behaviour of Physarum polycephalum.

Masaya Kato, Xiao-Fei Zhang, and *Hiroki Saito,
Moving obstacle potential in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review A 96, 033613/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We investigate the dynamics around an obstacle potential moving in the plane-wave state of a pseudospin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We numerically investigate the dynamics of the system and find that it depends not only on the velocity of the obstacle but also significantly on the direction of obstacle motion, both of which are verified by the Bogoliubov analysis. The excitation diagram with respect to the velocity and direction is obtained. The dependence of the critical velocity on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the size of the obstacle is also investigated.

*Shuji Ishihara, Philippe Marcq, Kaoru Sugimura,
From cells to tissue: A continuum model of epithelial mechanics,
Physical Review E 96, 022418 (2017).

[Summary] A two-dimensional continuum model of epithelial tissue mechanics was formulated using cellular-level mechanical ingredients and cell morphogenetic processes, including cellular shape changes and cellular rearrangements. This model incorporates stress and deformation tensors, which can be compared with experimental data. Focusing on the interplay between cell shape changes and cell rearrangements, we elucidated dynamical behavior underlying passive relaxation, active contraction-elongation, and tissue shear flow, including a mechanism for contraction-elongation, whereby tissue flows perpendicularly to the axis of cell elongation. This study provides an integrated scheme for the understanding of the orchestration of morphogenetic processes in individual cells to achieve epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

Yasuyuki Kobayashi*, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and Masaharu Nagayama,
Sustained dynamics of a weakly excitable system with nonlocal interactions,
Physical Review E 96, 022213/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We investigate a two-dimensional spatially extended system that has a weak sense of excitability, where an excitation wave has a uniform profile and propagates only within a finite range. Using a cellular automaton model of such a weakly excitable system, we show that three kinds of sustained dynamics emerge when nonlocal spatial interactions are provided, where a chain of local wave propagation and nonlocal activation forms an elementary oscillatory cycle. Transition between different oscillation regimes can be understood as different ways of interactions among these cycles. Analytical expressions are given for the oscillation probability near the onset of oscillations.

Itsuki Kunita, *Kei-ichi Ueda, Dai Akita, Sshigeru Kuroda and Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Behavioural differentiation induced by environmental variation when crossing a toxic zone in an amoeba,
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 354002/1-15 (2017).

[Summary] Organisms choose from among various courses of action in response to a wide variety of environmental conditions and the mechanism by which various behaviours are induced is an open question. Interesting behaviour was recently reported: that a unicellular organism of slime mold Physarum polycephalum known as an amoeba had multiple responses (crossing, returning, etc) when the amoeba encounters a zone with toxic levels of quinine, even under carefully controlled conditions. We here examined this elegant example in more detail to obtain insight into behavioural differentiation. We found that the statistical distribution of passage times across a quinine zone switch from unimodal to bimodal (with peaks corresponding to fast crossing and no crossing) when a periodic light stimulation to modulate a biorhythm in amoeba is applied homogeneously across the space, even under the same level of chemical stimuli. Based on a mathematical model for cell movement in amoeba, we successfully reproduced the stimulation-induced differentiation, which was observed experimentally. These dynamics may be explained by a saddle structure around a canard solution. Our results imply that the differentiation of behavioural types in amoeba is modi ed step-by-step via the compounding of stimulation inputs. The complex behaviour like the differentiation in amoeba may provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of behaviour selection in higher animals from an ethological perspective.

Yosuke Takasu, Yoshiaki Fukushima, Yusuke Nakamura, and Yoshiro Takahashi,
Magnetoassociation of a Feshbach molecule and spin-orbit interaction between the ground and electronically,
Physical Review A 96, 023602 (2017).

[Summary] By preparing a cold-atom ensemble of mixtures of the ground 1S0 and metastable 3P2 states of ytterbiumatoms 171Yb, we successfully associate a Feshbach molecule 171Yb2 with one 171Yb atom in its electronically excited state and another one in the ground state, by sweeping a magnetic field across a Feshbach resonance. The atom-molecule conversion efficiency reaches about 50%, confirmed by a separate image of atoms and molecules with a Stern-Gerlach effect and an atom loss measurement. In addition, we successfully implement a spin-orbit coupling with a one-photon process between the 3P2 (pseudo-spin-up) and ground 1S0 (pseudo-spin-down) states of a Yb atom. As a benchmark, we observe a spin-momentum locking behavior at a large Rabi frequency. The achieved successful production of Feshbach molecules, along with the implementation of spin-orbital coupling between the 1S0 and 3P2 states, provides an important step towards the study of a topological superfluid.

Hiroki Saito,
Solving the Bose-Hubbard model with machine learning,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 86, 093001/1-4 (2017).

[Summary] Motivated by the recent successful application of artificial neural networks to quantum many-body problems [G. Carleo and M. Troyer, Science 355, 602 (2017)], a method to calculate the ground state of the Bose–Hubbard model using a feedforward neural network is proposed. The results are in good agreement with those obtained by exact diagonalization and the Gutzwiller approximation. The method of neural-network quantum states is promising for solving quantum many-body problems of ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

*Yuki Koyano, Marian Gryciuk, Paulina Skrobanska, Maciej Malecki, Yutaka Sumino, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and Jerzy Gorecki,
Relationship between the size of a camphor-driven rotor and its angular velocity,
Physical Review E 96, 021609/1-8 (2017).

[Summary] We consider a rotor made of two camphor disks glued below the ends of a plastic stripe. The disks are floating on a water surface and the plastic stripe does not touch the surface. The system can rotate around a vertical axis located at the center of the stripe. The disks dissipate camphor molecules. The driving momentum comes from the nonuniformity of surface tension resulting from inhomogeneous surface concentration of camphor molecules around the disks. We investigate the stationary angular velocity as a function of rotor radius ℓ. For large ℓ the angular velocity decreases for increasing ℓ. At a specific value of ℓ the angular velocity reaches its maximum and, for short ℓ it rapidly decreases. Such behavior is confirmed by a simple numerical model. The model also predicts that there is a critical rotor size below which it does not rotate. Within the introduced model we analyze the type of this bifurcation.

Dai Akita, Daniel Schenz, Shigeru Kuroda, Katsuhiko Sato, Kei-Ichi Ueda, *Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Current Reinforcement Model Reproduces Center-In-Center Vein Trajectory of Physarum Polycephalum,
Development, Growth & Differentation 59, 465-470 (2017).

[Summary] Vein networks span the whole body of the amoeboid organism in the plasmodial slime mould Physarum polycephalum, and the network topology is rearranged within an hour in response to spatio-temporal variations of the environment. It has been reported that this tube morphogenesis is capable of solving mazes, and a mathematical model, named the ‘current reinforcement rule’, was proposed based on the adaptability of the veins. Although it is known that this model works well for reproducing some key characters of the organism's maze-solving behaviour, one important issue is still open: In the real organism, the thick veins tend to trace the shortest possible route by cutting the corners at the turn of corridors, following a center-in-center trajectory, but it has not yet been examined whether this feature also appears in the mathematical model, using corridors of finite width. In this report, we confirm that the mathematical model reproduces the center-in-center trajectory of veins around corners observed in the maze-solving experiment.

*Jerzy Gorecki, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Nobuhiko J. Suematsu, Yuki Koyano, Paulina Skrobanska, Marian Gryciuk, Maciej Malecki, Takahiro Tanabe, Hiroya Yamamoto, and Satoshi Nakata,
Unidirectional motion of a camphor disk on water forced by interactions between surface camphor concentration and dynamically changing boundaries,
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 19, 18767-18772 (2017).

[Summary] We study the motion of a camphor disk on the water surface in a system with flexible boundaries. The boundaries can be dynamically modified by non-uniform surface tension resulting from the nonhomogeneous surface concentration of the camphor molecules dissipated by the disk. We investigate the geometry of the boundaries that forces unidirectional motion of the disk. The studied system can be regarded as a signal diode if the presence or absence of a camphor disk at a specific point is interpreted as the binary TRUE and FALSE ariables. The diode can be incorporated into more complex devices, like a ring that imposes unidirectional rotation of camphor disks.

*Kei Nishi, Shogo Suzuki, Katsuhiko Kayahara, Masakazu Kuze, Hiroyuki Kitahata, *Satoshi Nakata, and *Yasumasa Nishiura,
Achilles’ heel of a traveling pulse subject to a local external stimulus,
Physical Review E 95, 062209/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] The response of a traveling pulse to a local external stimulus is considered numerically for a modified threecomponent Oregonator, which is a model system for the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. The traveling pulse is traced and constantly stimulated, with the distance between the pulse and the stimulus being kept constant.We are interested in theminimal strength of the spatially localized stimulus in order to eliminate the pulse. The use of a stimulus of small width allows us to detect the point in the pulse most sensitive to the external stimulus, referred to as the “Achilles’ heel” of the traveling pulse, at which minimal strength of stimulus causes a collapse of the pulse. Our findings are demonstrated experimentally as well with the photosensitive BZ reaction.

*Mark Fricker, Dai Akita, Luke L. Heaton, Nick Jones, Barak Obara and Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Automated analysis of Physarum network structure and dynamics,
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 254005/1-14 (2017).

[Summary] We evaluate different ridge-enhancement and segmentation methods to automatically extract the network architecture from time-series of Physarum plasmodia withdrawing from an arena via a single exit. Whilst all methods gave reasonable results, judged by precision-recall analysis against a ground-truth skeleton, the mean phase angle (Feature Type) from intensity-independent, phase-congruency edge enhancement and watershed segmentation was the most robust to variation in threshold parameters. The resultant single pixel-wide segmented skeleton was converted to a graph representation as a set of weighted adjacency matrices containing the physical dimensions of each vein, and the inter-vein regions. We encapsulate the complete image processing and network analysis pipeline in a downloadable software package, and provide an extensive set of metrics that characterise the network structure, including hierarchical loop decomposition to analyse the nested structure of the developing network. In addition, the change in volume for each vein and intervening plasmodial sheet was used to predict the net flow across the network. The scaling relationships between predicted current, speed and shear force with vein radius were consistent with predictions from Murray's law. This work was presented at PhysNet 2015.

Takuya Umedachi, Kentaro Ito, Ryo Kobayashi, Akio Ishiguro and Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Response to Various Periods of Mechanical Stimuli in Physarum Plasmodium,
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 254002/1-7 (2017).

[Summary] Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli.

Yumino Hayase, Takahiro Sakaue and Hiizu Nakanishi,
Compressive response and helix formation of a semiflexible polymer confined in a nanochannel,
Physical Review E 95, 052502/1-6 (2017).

[Summary] Configurations of a single semiflexible polymer is studied when it is pushed into a nanochannel in the case where the polymer persistence length lp is much longer than the channel diameter D:lp/D≫1. Using numerical simulations, we show that the polymer undergoes a sequence of recurring structural transitions upon longitudinal compression: random deflection along the channel, a helix going around the channel wall, double-fold random deflection, double-fold helix, etc. We find that the helix transition can be understood as buckling of deflection segments, and the initial helix formation takes place at very small compression with no appreciable weak compression regime of the random deflection polymer.

Naoko Ueno, Taisuke Banno, Arisa Asami, Yuki Kazayama, Yuya Morimoto, Toshihisa Osaki, Shoji Takeuchi, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and *Taro Toyota,
Self-propelled motion of monodisperse underwater oil droplets formed by a microfluidic device,
Langmuir 33, 5393-5397 (2017).

[Summary] We evaluated the speed profile of self-propelled underwater oil droplets comprising a hydrophobic aldehyde derivative in terms of their diameter and the surrounding surfactant concentration using a microfluidic device. We found that the speed of the oil droplets is dependent on not only the surfactant concentration but also the droplet size in a certain range of the surfactant concentration. This tendency is interpreted in terms of combination of the oil and surfactant affording spontaneous emulsification in addition to the Marangoni effect.

Keita Kamino, Yohei Kondo, Akihiko Nakajima, Mai Honda-Kitahara, Kunihiko Kaneko, Satoshi Sawai,
Fold-change detection and scale-invariance of cell-cell signaling in social amoeba,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114(21), E4149-E4157 (2017).

[Summary] Cell-cell signaling is subject to variability in the extracellular volume, cell number, and dilution that potentially increase uncertainty in the absolute concentrations of the extracellular signaling molecules. To direct cell aggregation, the social amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum collectively give rise to oscillations and waves of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) under a wide range of cell density. To date, the systems-level mechanism underlying the robustness is unclear. By using quantitative live-cell imaging, here we show that the magnitude of the cAMP relay response of individual cells is determined by fold change in the extracellular cAMP concentrations. The range of cell density and exogenous cAMP concentrations that support oscillations at the population level agrees well with conditions that support a large fold-change-dependent response at the single-cell level. Mathematical analysis suggests that invariance of the oscillations to density transformation is a natural outcome of combining secrete-and-sense systems with a fold-change detection mechanism.

*Takuya Saito and Takahiro Sakaue,
Complementary mode analyses between sub-and superdiffusion,
Physical Review E 95, 042143 (2017).

[Summary] Several subdiffusive stochastic processes in nature, e.g., the motion of a tagged monomer in polymers, the height fluctuation of interfaces, particle dynamics in single-file diffusion, etc., can be described rigorously or approximately by the superposition of various modes whose relaxation times are broadly distributed. In this paper, we propose a mode analysis generating superdiffusion, which is paired with or complementary to subdiffusion. The key point in our discussion lies in the identification of a pair of conjugated variables, which undergo sub- and superdiffusion, respectively. We provide a simple interpretation for the sub- and superdiffusion duality for these variables using the language of polymer physics. The analysis also suggests the usefulness of looking at the force fluctuation in experiments, where a polymer is driven by a constant velocity.

*Hiroshi Orihara, Nobutaka Sakurai, Yuji Sasaki, and Tomoyuki Nagaya,
Direct observation of coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium,
Physical Review E 95, 042705/1-6 (2017).

[Summary] Nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) have long-range orientational order, and the average direction of their rod-like molecules is designated by the so-called director. One of the most remarkable properties in NLCs is the coupling between director and flow: a change in the director can induce flow and vice versa. To demonstrate the coupling between orientation and flow fluctuations in a nematic liquid crystal at equilibrium, we simultaneously observe the intensity change due to director fluctuations under a polarizing microscope and theBrownian motion of a fluorescent particle trapped weakly by optical tweezers. The calculated cross-correlationfunction of the particle position and the spatial gradient of the intensity is nonzero, clearly indicating the existenceof coupling.

Masaya Kato, Xiao-Fei Zhang, and *Hiroki Saito,
Vortex pairs in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review A 95, 043605/1-7 (2017).

[Summary] Static and dynamic properties of vortices in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling are investigated. The mass current around a vortex core in the plane-wave phase is found to be deformed by the spin-orbit coupling, and this makes the dynamics of the vortex pairs quite different from those in a scalar Bose-Einstein condensate. The velocity of a vortex-antivortex pair is much smaller than that without spin-orbit coupling, and there exist stationary states. Two vortices with the same circulation move away from each other or unite to form a stationary state.

*Takahiro Sakaue, Jean-Charles Walter, Enrico Carlon and Carlo Vanderzande,
Non-Markovian dynamics of reaction coordinate in polymer folding,
Soft Matter 13, 3174-3181 (2017).

[Summary] We develop a theoretical description of the critical zipping dynamics of a self-folding polymer. We use tension propagation theory and the formalism of the generalized Langevin equation applied to a polymer that contains two complementary parts which can bind to each other. At the critical temperature, the (un)zipping is unbiased and the two strands open and close as a zipper. The number of broken base pairs n(t) displays a subdiffusive motion characterized by a variance growing as 〈Δn2(t)〉 ∼ tα with α < 1 at long times. Our theory provides an estimate of both the asymptotic anomalous exponent α and of the subleading correction term, which are both in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The results indicate that the tension propagation theory captures the relevant features of the dynamics and shed some new insights on related polymer problems characterized by anomalous dynamical behavior.

*Bernd Meyer, Cedrick Ansorge and Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
The Role of Noise in Self-organized Decision Making by the True Slime Mold Physarum polycephalum,
PLOS ONE 12, e0172933 (2017).

[Summary] Self-organized mechanisms are frequently encountered in nature and known to achieve flexible, adaptive control and decision-making. Noise plays a crucial role in such systems: It can enable a self-organized system to reliably adapt to short-term changes in the environ- ment while maintaining a generally stable behavior. This is fundamental in biological sys- tems because they must strike a delicate balance between stable and flexible behavior. In the present paper we analyse the role of noise in the decision-making of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum, an important model species for the investigation of computational abilities in simple organisms. We propose a simple biological experiment to investigate the reaction of P. polycephalum to time-variant risk factors and present a stochastic extension of an established mathematical model for P. polycephalum to analyze this experiment. It predicts that—due to the mechanism of stochastic resonance—noise can enable P. polyce- phalum to correctly assess time-variant risk factors, while the corresponding noise-free sys- tem fails to do so. Beyond the study of P. polycephalum we demonstrate that the influence of noise on self-organized decision-making is not tied to a specific organism. Rather it is a general property of the underlying process dynamics, which appears to be universal across a wide range of systems. Our study thus provides further evidence that stochastic reso- nance is a fundamental component of the decision-making in self-organized macroscopic and microscopic groups and organisms.

Xiao-Fei Zhang, Masaya Kato, Wei Han, Shou-Gang Zhang, and Hiroki Saito,
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates held under a toroidal trap,
Physical Review A 95, 033620 (2017).

[Summary] We study a quasispin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate with synthetically generated spin-orbit coupling in a toroidal trap and show that the system has a rich variety of ground states. As the central hole region increases, i.e., the potential changes from harmoniclike to ringlike, the condensate exhibits a variety of structures, such as a modified stripe, an alternately arranged stripe, and countercircling states. In the limit of a quasi-one-dimensional ring, the quantum many-body ground state is obtained, which is found to be the fragmented condensate.

K. Sato, I. Kunita, Y. Takikawa, D. Takeuchi, Y. Tanaka, T. Nakagaki and *H. Orihara,
Direct observation of orientation distributions of actin filaments in a solution undergoing shear banding,
Soft Matter 13, 2708-2716 (2017).

[Summary] Shear banding is frequently observed in complex fluids. However, the configuration of macromoleculesin solutions undergoing shear banding has not yet been directly observed. In this study, by using the factthat F-actin solutions exhibit shear banding and actin filaments are visualized by fluorescent labels, wedirectly observed the intrinsic states of an actin solution undergoing shear banding. By combining the 3Dimaging of labeled actin filaments and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we obtained orientation distributionsof actin filaments in both high and low shear rate regions, whose quantitative differences are indicated.In addition, by using the orientation distributions and applying stress expression for rod-like polymers, weestimated stress tensors in both high and low shear rate regions. This evaluation indicates that differentorientation distributions of filamentous macromolecules can exhibit a common shear stress.

Makoto Iima, Hiroshi Kori and Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Studies of the phase gradient at the boundary of the phase diffusion equation, motivated by peculiar wave patterns of rhythmic contraction in the amoeboid movement of Physarum polycephalum,
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 154004/1-10 (2017).

[Summary] The boundary of a cell is the interface with its surroundings and plays a key role in controlling the cell movement adaptations to different environments. We propose a study of the boundary effects on the patterns and waves of the rhythmic contractions in plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum, a tractable model organism of the amoeboid type. Boundary effects are defined as the effects of both the boundary conditions and the boundary shape. The rhythmicity of contraction can be modulated by local stimulation of temperature, light and chemicals, and by local deformation of cell shape via mechanosensitive ion channels as well. First, we examined the effects of boundary cell shapes in the case of a special shape resembling a tadpole, while requiring that the natural frequency in the proximity of the boundary is slightly higher and uniform. The simulation model reproduced the approximate propagated wave, from the tail to the head, while the inward waves were observed only near the periphery of the head section of the tadpole-shape. A key finding was that the frequency of the rhythmic contractions depended on the local shape of cell boundary. This implies that the boundary conditions of the phase were not always homogeneous. To understand the dependency, we reduced the two-dimensional model into a one-dimensional continuum model with Neumann boundary conditions. Here, the boundary conditions reflect the frequency distribution at the boundary. We described the analytic solutions and calculated the relationship between the boundary conditions and the wave propagation for a one-dimensional model of the continuous oscillatory field and a discrete coupled oscillator system. The results obtained may not be limited to cell movement of Physarum, but may be applicable to the other physical systems since the analysis used a generic phase diffusion equation.

*Kazuya Saito, Takaaki Ikeda, Yasuhisa Yamamura, Hideki Saitoh, Mafumi Hishida, Yutaro Kobayashi, Takeshi Fujita, and Junji Ichikawa,
Cell-quintupling: Structural phase transition in a molecular crystal, bis(trans-4-butylcyclohexyl)methanol,
The Journal of Chemical Physics 146, 074503 (2017).

[Summary] Astructural phase transition at 151.6Kof the title compound [bis(trans-4–butylcyclohexyl)methanol] is examined by X-ray diffraction crystallography, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and adiabatic calorimetry. A general consideration on possible superstructures indicates that a single modulation wave is sufficient to drive this cell-quintupling transition. The entropy of transition determined calorimetrically indicates that two conformations are dominant in the room-temperature phase in contrast to the fivefold disorder expected from the structure of the low-temperature phase.

*Kazuya Saito, Mafumi Hishida, Kent Koike, Shigenori Nagatomo, and Yasuhisa Yamamura,
X-ray study of molecular association in alcohols having bulkysubstituents,
Chemical Physics Letters 673, 74-77 (2017).

[Summary] The formation of globular associate on cooling, which was previously claimed on the basis of small dielectric constant, is supported through measuring X-ray scattering from dicyclohexylmethanol (DCHM). Radial distribution function of the DCHM molecules exhibits strong temperature dependence between 65 ℃ and 130 ℃ in contrast to a little change in that of tricyclohexylmethanol (TCHM), which is similar to DCHM but essentially non-associating in experimental conditions (95–160℃).

Shigeru Kuroda, Seiji Takagi, Tetsu Saigusa and *Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Physical ethology of unicellular organism,
Brain Evolution by Design -, 3-23 (2017).

[Summary] In this chapter, some behaviours of unicellular organisms that appear to be smart or intelligent are reported. Two topics are the focus from two major groups of eukaryotic unicellular organisms, amoebae and ciliates: (1) anticipatory capacity of periodic environmental events in an amoeba and (2) environment- induced development of a new type of behaviour in a ciliate. A mechanism of these behaviours is discussed, based on a mechanical equation of motion. Ethology (the science of animal behaviour) of unicellular organisms is recently being studied from a physical point of view. We propose to call this kind of study physical ethology. Physical ethology may give us some hints about the origin of primitive intelligence.

*Takahiro Sakaue, Takuya Saito,
Active diffusion of model chromosomal loci driven by athermal noise,
Soft Matter 13, 81-87 (2017).

[Summary] Active diffusion, i.e., fluctuating dynamics driven by athermal noise, is found in various out-of-equilibrium systems. Here we discuss the nature of the active diffusion of tagged monomers in a flexible polymer. A scaling argument based on the notion of tension propagation clarifies how the polymeric effect is reflected in the anomalous diffusion exponent, which may be of relevance to the dynamics of chromosomal loci in living cells.

*Hiroyuki Kitahata, Hiroya Yamamoto, Misato Hata, Yumihiko S. Ikura, *Satoshi Nakata,
Relaxation dynamics of the Marangoni convection roll structure induced by camphor concentration gradient,
Colloids and Surfaces A 520, 436-441 (2017).

[Summary] When a camphor disk is placed close to a water surface, Marangoni convection occurs due to the surfacetension gradient originating from the spatial distribution of camphor molecules at the water surface. Weput plastic floats on the water surface to investigate the surface Marangoni flow, and observed that theplastic floats moved away from the camphor disk due to Marangoni convection. When the camphor diskwas pulled up away from the water surface, the Marangoni convection weakened and finally disappeared.At that time, we observed that the floats approached the position just below the camphor disk. We discussthe mechanism of such float motion as related to the change in the structure of Marangoni convectionand the change in the water level.


Yoriaki Nishioka, Fumiaki Kobayashi, Nobutaka Sakurai, *Yuji Sasaki, and Hiroshi Orihara,
Microscopic characterisation of self-assembled colloidal particles in electrohydrodynamic convection of a low-birefringence nematic liquid crystal,
Liquid Crystals 43(4), 427-435 (2016).

[Summary] Electrokinetics of small particles immersed in anisotropic fluids is attracting attention in recent years. Here we focus on microscopic appearance of single as well as self-assembled particles moving in the electrohydrodynamic convection (EHC) of a nematic liquid crystal with low birefringence. Characterisation of the birefringent properties is made by polarised light microscopy under different illumination conditions. Because of the small optical anisotropy, the director distortion around the particles clearly exhibits distinctive colours on both sides depending on the height in the cell. The observation can be explained as the change in the net phase retardation of the light. It is also found that a caterpillar-like motion is possible by tuning temperature, although the horizontal size of the EHC rolls is relatively narrow.

*Takahiro Sakaue,
Dynamics of polymer translocation: a short review with an introduction of weakly-driven regime,
Polymers 8, 424:1-12 (2016).

[Summary] As emphasized in a recent review (by V.V. Palyulin, T. Ala-Nissila, R. Metzler), theoretical understanding of the unbiased polymer translocation lags behind that of the (strongly) driven translocation. Here, we suggest the introduction of a weakly-driven regime, as described by the linear response theory to the unbiased regime, which is followed by the strongly-driven regime beyond the onset of nonlinear response. This provides a concise crossover scenario, bridging the unbiased to strongly-driven regimes.

Dai Akita, Itsuki Kunita, Mark D Fricker, Shigeru Kuroda, Katsuhiko Sato and *Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Experimental models for Murray’s law,
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 50, 024001 (2016).

[Summary] Transport networks are ubiquitous in multicellular organisms and include leaf veins, fungal mycelia and bloodvessels. While transport of materials and signals through the network plays a crucial role in maintaining theliving system, the transport capacity of the network can best be understood in terms of hydrodynamics. Wereport here that plasmodium from the large, single-celled amoeboid Physarum was able to construct ahydrodynamically optimized veinnetwork when evacuating biomass from confined arenas of various shapes througha narrow exit. Increasingly thick veins developed towards the exit, and the network spanned the arena viarepetitive bifurcations to give a branching tree. The Hausdorff distance from all parts of the plasmodium tothe vein network was kept low, whilst the hydrodynamic conductivity from distal parts of the network to theexit was equivalent, irrespective of the arena shape. This combination of spatial patterning and differentialvein thickening served to evacuate biomass at an equivalent rate across the entire arena. The scalingrelationship at the vein branches was determined experimentally to be, consistent with predictionsfrom Murray’s law. Furthermore, we show that mathematical models for self-organised, adaptive transport inPhysarum simulate the experimental network organisation well if the scaling coefficient of thecurrent-reinforcement rule is set to 3. In simulations, this resulted in rapid development of an optimalnetwork that minimised the combined volume and frictional energy in comparison with other scalingcoefficients. This would predict that the boundary shear forces within each vein are constant throughout thenetwork, and would be consistent with a feedback mechanism based on a sensing a threshold shear at the veinwall.

Yuji Sasaki, *V.S.R. Jampani, Chiharu Tanaka, Nobutaka Sakurai, Shin Sakane, Khoa V. Le, *Fumito Araoka, and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Large-scale self-organization of reconfigurable topological defect networks in nematic liquid crystals,
Nature Communications 7, 13238 (2016).

[Summary] Topological defects in nematic liquid crystals are ubiquitous. The defects are important in understanding the fundamental properties of the systems, as well as in practical applications, such as colloidal self-assembly, optical vortex generation and templates for molecular self-assembly. Usually, spatially and temporally stable defects require geometrical frustration imposed by surfaces; otherwise, the system relaxes because of the high cost of the elastic energy. So far, multiple defects are kept in bulk nematic liquid crystals by top-down lithographic techniques. In this work, we stabilize a large number of umbilical defects by doping with an ionic impurity. This method does not require pre-patterned surfaces. We demonstrate that molecular reorientation controlled by an AC voltage induces periodic density modulation of ions accumulated at an electrically insulating polymer interface, resulting in self-organization of a two-dimensional square array of umbilical defects that is reconfigurable and tunable.

*Xiao-Fei Zhang, Wei Han, Hai-Feng Jiang, Wu-Ming Liu, Hiroki Saito, and Shou-Gang Zhang,
Topological defect formation in rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate,
Annals of Physics 375, 368-377 (2016).

[Summary] We investigate the topological defects and spin structures of a rotating binary Bose–Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms confined in spin-dependent optical lattices, for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles with respect to their plane of motion. Our results show that the tunable dipolar interaction, especially the orientation of the dipoles, can be used to control the direction of stripe phase and its related half-vortex sheets. In addition, it can also be used to obtain a regular arrangement of various topological spin textures, such as meron, circular and cross disgyration spin structures. We point out that such topological defects and regular arrangement of spin structures arise primarily from the long-range and anisotropic nature of dipolar interaction and its competition with the spin-dependent optical lattices and rotation.

Masaya Kato, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Daichi Sasaki, and Hiroki Saito,
Twisted spin vortices in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and dipole-dipole interaction,
Physical Review A 94, 043633/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] We consider a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and dipole-dipole interaction confined in a cigar-shaped trap. Due to the combined effects of spin-orbit coupling, dipole-dipole interaction, and trap geometry, the system exhibits a rich variety of ground-state spin structures, including twisted spin vortices. The ground-state phase diagram is determined with respect to the strengths of the spin-orbit coupling and dipole-dipole interaction.

Yuki Koyano, Tatsunari Sakurai, and *Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Oscillatory motion of a camphor grain in a one-dimensional finite region,
Physical Review E 94, 042215/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] The motion of a self-propelled particle is affected by its surroundings, such as boundaries or external fields. In this paper, we investigated the bifurcation of the motion of a camphor grain, as a simple actual self-propelled system, confined in a one-dimensional finite region. A camphor grain exhibits oscillatory motion or remains at rest around the center position in a one-dimensional finite water channel, depending on the length of the water channel and the resistance coefficient. A mathematical model including the boundary effect is analytically reduced to an ordinary differential equation. Linear stability analysis reveals that the Hopf bifurcation occurs, reflecting the symmetry of the system.

Hiroki Saito and Rina Kanamoto,
Self-rotation and synchronization in exciton-polariton condensates,
Physical Review B 94, 165306 (2016).

[Summary] Self-rotation occurs in an exciton-polariton condensate in a two-dimensional semiconductor microcavity pumped by a nonresonant Gaussian laser beam. A wave packet of the condensate spontaneously rotates around the center of the pumped region at a constant frequency breaking the rotation symmetry of the system. When two self-rotating condensates are created with an appropriate distance, synchronization occurs between the dynamics of the self-rotating condensates.

Akihiko Nakajima, Motohiko Ishida, Taihei Fujimori, Yuichi Wakamoto, *Satoshi Sawai,
The Microfluidic lighthouse: an omnidirectional gradient generator,
Lab on Chip 16(22), 4382-4394 (2016).

[Summary] Studies of chemotactic cell migration rely heavily on various assay systems designed to evaluate the ability of cells to move in response to attractant molecules. In particular, the development of microfluidics-based devices in recent years has made it possible to spatially distribute attractant molecules in graded profiles that are sufficiently stable and precise to test theoretical predictions regarding the accuracy and efficiency of chemotaxis and the underlying mechanism of stimulus perception. However, because the gradient is fixed in a direction orthogonal to the laminar flow and thus the chamber geometry, conventional devices are limited for the study of cell re-orientation to gradients that move or change directions. Here, we describe the development of a simple radially symmetric microfluidics device that can deliver laminar flow in 360°. A stimulant introduced either from the central inlet or by photo uncaging is focused into the laminar flow in a direction determined by the relative rate of regulated flow from multiple side channels. Schemes for flow regulation and an extended duplexed device were designed to generate and move gradients in desired orientations and speed, and then tested to steer cell migration of Dictyostelium and neutrophil-like HL60 cells. The device provided a high degree of freedom in the positioning and orientation of attractant gradients, and thus may serve as a versatile platform for studying cell migration, re-orientation, and steering.

*Takayuki Narumi, Yosuke Mikami, Tomoyuki Nagaya, Hirotaka Okabe, Kazuhiro Hara, and Yoshiki Hidaka,
Relaxation with long-period oscillation in defect turbulence of planar nematic liquid crystals,
Physical Review E 94, 042701/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] Through experiments, we studied defect turbulence, a type of spatiotemporal chaos in planar systems of nematic liquid crystals, to clarify the chaotic advection of weak turbulence. In planar systems of large aspect ratio, structural relaxation, which is characterized by the dynamic structure factor, exhibits a long-period oscillation that is described well by a combination of a simple exponential relaxation and underdamped oscillation. The simple relaxation arises as a result of the roll modulation while the damped oscillation is manifest in the repetitive gliding of defect pairs in a local area. Each relaxation is derived analytically by the projection operator method that separates turbulent transport into a macroscopic contribution and fluctuations. The analysis proposes that the two relaxations are not correlated. The nonthermal fluctuations of defect turbulence are consequently separated into two independent Markov processes. Our approach sheds light on diversity and universality from a unified viewpoint for weak turbulence.

*Wei Han, Xiao-Fei Zhang, Shu-Wei Song, Hiroki Saito, Wei Zhang, Wu-Ming Liu, and Shou-Gang Zhang,
Double-quantum spin vortices in SU(3) spin-orbit coupled Bose gases,
Physical Review A 94, 033611/1-9 (2016).

[Summary] We show that double-quantum spin vortices, which are characterized by doubly quantized circulating spin currents and unmagnetized filled cores, can exist in the ground states of SU(3) spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases. It is found that the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling and spin-exchange interaction play important roles in determining the ground-state phase diagram. In the case of effective ferromagnetic spin interaction, the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling induces a threefold degeneracy to the magnetized ground state, while in the antiferromagnetic spin interaction case, the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling breaks the ordinary phase rule of spinor Bose gases and allows the spontaneous emergence of double-quantum spin vortices. This exotic topological defect is in stark contrast to the singly quantized spin vortices observed in existing experiments and can be readily observed by the current magnetization-sensitive phase-contrast imaging technique.

Elisa Herawati, Daisuke Taniguchi, Hatsuho Kanoh, Kazuhiro Tateishi, Shuji Ishihara, and Sachiko Tsukita,
Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleto,
The Journal of Cell Biology 214, 571–586 (2016).

[Summary] Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport.

Yuki Koyano, Hiroyuki Kitahata, *Alexander S. Mikhailov,
Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes,
Physical Review E 94, 022416/1-11 (2016).

[Summary] Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

Koutaro Nakagome, Katsuhiko Sato, Seine A. Shintani, *Shin’ichi Ishiwata,
Model simulation of the SPOC wave in a bundle of striated myofibrils,
Biophysics and Physicobiology 13, 217-226 (2016).

[Summary] SPOC (spontaneous oscillatory contraction) is a phenomenon observed in striated muscle under intermediateactivation conditions. Recently, we constructed a theoretical model of SPOC for a sarcomere, a unit sarcomeremodel, which explains the behavior of SPOC at each sarcomere level. We also constructed a single myofibrilmodel, which visco-elastically connects the unit model in series, and explains the behaviors of SPOC at themyofibril level. In the present study, to understand the SPOC properties in a bundle of myofibrils, weextended the single myofibril model to a two-dimensional (2D) model and a three-dimensional (3D) model, inwhich myofibrils were elastically connected side-by-side through cross-linkers between the Z-lines andM-lines. These 2D and 3D myofibril models could reproduce various patterns of SPOC waves experimentallyobserved in a 2D sheet and a 3D bundle of myofibrils only by choosing different values of elastic constants ofthe cross-linkers and the external spring. The results of these 2D and 3D myofibril models provide insightinto the SPOC properties of the higher-ordered assembly of myofibrils.

Taisuke Banno, Arisa Asami, Naoko Ueno, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Yuki Koyano, Kouichi Asakura, *Taro Toyota,
Deformable self-propelled micro-object comprising underwater oil droplets,
Scientific Reports 6, 31292/1-9 (2016).

[Summary] The self-propelled motion with deformation of micrometer-sized soft matter in water has potential application not only for underwater carriers or probes in very narrow spaces but also for understanding cell locomotion in terms of non-equilibrium physics. As far as we know, there have been no reports about micrometer-sized self-propelled soft matter mimicking amoeboid motion underwater. Here, we report an artificial molecular system of underwater oil droplets exhibiting self-propelled motion with deformation as an initial experimental model. We describe the heterogeneity in a deformable self-propelled oil droplet system in aqueous and oil phases and at their interface based on the behavior and interaction of surfactant and oil molecules. The current results have great importance for scientific frontiers such as developing deformable micro-swimmers and exploring the emergence of self-locomotion of oil droplet-type protocells.

*Satoshi Nakata, Hiroya Yamamoto, Yuki Koyano, Osamu Yamanaka, Yutaka Sumino, Nobuhiko J. Suematsu, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Paulina Skrobanska, and Jerzy Gorecki,
Selection of the Rotation Direction for a Camphor Disk Resulting from Chiral Asymmetry of a Water Chamber,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 120, 9166-9172 (2016).

[Summary] Self-motion of a camphor disk rotating inside a water chamber composed of two half-disks was investigated. The half-disks were joined along their diameter segments, and the distance between their midpoints (ds) was considered as the control parameter. Various types of camphor disk motions were observed depending on ds. When ds = 0, the chamber had a circular shape, so it was symmetric. A camphor disk showed either a clockwise (CW) or ounterclockwise (CCW) rotation with the direction determined by its initial state. The symmetry of the chamber was broken for ds > 0. For moderate distances between the midpoints, a unidirectional orbital motion of the disk was observed. The preferred rotation direction was determined by the shape of the chamber, and it did not depend on the initial rotation direction. For yet larger ds, the unidirectional circular motion was no longer observed and the trajectory became irregular. A mathematical model coupling the camphor disk motion with the dynamics of the developed camphor molecular layer on water was constructed, and the numerical results were compared with the experimental results. The selection of motion type can be explained by considering the influence of camphor concentration on the disk trajectory through the surface tension gradient.

Takayuki Torisawa, Daisuke Taniguchi, Shuji Ishihara, Kazuhiro Oiwa,
Spontaneous Formation of a Globally Connected Contractile Network in a Microtubule-Motor System,
Biophysical Journal 111, 373–385 (2016).

[Summary] Microtubule (MT) networks play key roles in cell division, intracellular transport, and cell motility. These functions of MT networks occur through interactions between MTs and various associated proteins, notably motor proteins that bundle and slide MTs. Our objective in this study was to address the question of how motors determine the nature of MT networks. We conducted in vitro assays using homotetrameric kinesin Eg5, a motor protein involved in the formation and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. The mixing of Eg5 and MTs produced a range of spatiotemporal dynamics depending on the motor/filament ratio. Low motor/filament ratios produced globally connected static MT networks with sparsely distributed contractile active nodes (motor-accumulating points with radially extending MTs). Increasing the motor/filament ratio facilitated the linking of contractile active nodes and led to a global contraction of the network. When the motor/filament ratio was further increased, densely distributed active nodes formed local clusters and segmented the network into pieces with their strong contractile forces. Altering the properties of the motor through the use of chimeric Eg5, which has kinesin-1 heads, resulted in the generation of many isolated asters. These results suggest that the spatial distribution of contractile active nodes determines the dynamics of MT-motor networks. We then developed a coarse-grained model of MT-motor networks and identified two essential features for reproducing the experimentally observed patterns: an accumulation of motors that form the active nodes necessary to generate contractile forces, and a nonlinear dependency of contractile force on motor densities. Our model also enabled us to characterize the mechanical properties of the contractile network. Our study provides insight into how local motor-MT interactions generate the spatiotemporal dynamics of macroscopic network structures.

*Yujiro Eto, Masahiro Takahashi, Masaya Kunimi, Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Nonequilibrium dynamics induced by miscible-immiscible transition in binary Bose-Einstein condensates,
New Journal of Physics 17, 0703029/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] We have observed and characterized the nonequilibrium spatial dynamics of a two-component 87Rb Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) that is controllable switched back and forth between the miscible and immiscible phases of the phase separation transition by changing the internal states of the 87Rb atoms. The subsequent evolution exhibits large scale oscillations of the spatial structure that involve component mixing and separation. We show that the larger total energy of the miscible system results in a higher oscillation frequency. This investigation introduces a new technique to control the miscibility and the spatial degrees of freedom in atomic BECs.

Fumihito Fukujin, Akihiko Nakajima, Nao Shimada, *Satoshi Sawai,
Self-organization of chemoattractant waves in Dictyostelium depends on F-actin and cell–substrate adhesion,
Journal of The Royal Society Interface 13(119), 20160233 (2016).

[Summary] In the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, travelling waves of extracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) self-organize in cell populations and direct aggregation of individual cells to form multicellular fruiting bodies. In contrast to the large body of studies that addressed how movement of cells is determined by spatial and temporal cues encoded in the dynamic cAMP gradients, how cell mechanics affect the formation of a self-generated chemoattractant field has received less attention. Here, we show, by live cell imaging analysis, that the periodicity of the synchronized cAMP waves increases in cells treated with the actin inhibitor latrunculin. Detail analysis of the extracellular cAMP-induced transients of cytosolic cAMP (cAMP relay response) in well-isolated cells demonstrated that their amplitude and duration were markedly reduced in latrunculin-treated cells. Similarly, in cells strongly adhered to a poly-l-lysine-coated surface, the response was suppressed, and the periodicity of the population-level oscillations was markedly lengthened. Our results suggest that cortical F-actin is dispensable for the basic low amplitude relay response but essential for its full amplification and that this enhanced response is necessary to establish high-frequency signalling centres. The observed F-actin dependence may prevent aggregation centres from establishing in microenvironments that are incompatible with cell migration.

*Tomoyuki Nagaya, Yuki Satou, Yoshitomo Goto, Yoshiki Hidaka, and Hiroshi Orihara,
Viscosity of Liquid Crystal Mixtures in the Presence of Electroconvection,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 85, 074002/1-4 (2016).

[Summary] We have experimentally investigated the viscosity of nematic liquid crystal mixtures of p-methoxybenzylidene-pA-n- butylaniline (MBBA) and p-ethoxybenzylidene-pA-cyanoaniline (EBCA) in the presence of electroconvection under an ac electric field with 60Hz. Although the viscosity of the mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy shows a characteristic decrease in the high-voltage regime, that with positive dielectric anisotropy shows a monotonic increase as the applied voltage is increased. The experimental results suggest that the decrease in viscosity observed only for the mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy is attributed to the negative contribution of electric stress caused by the anisotropic director distribution of the turbulent state.

Hironobu Nogucci and Shuji Ishihara,
Collective dynamics of active filament complexes,
Physical Review E 93, 052406/1-10 (2016).

[Summary] Networks of biofilaments are essential for the formation of cellular structures that support various biologicalfunctions. For the most part, previous studies have investigated the collective dynamics of rodlike biofilaments;however, the shapes of the actual subcellular components are often more elaborate. In this study, weconsidered an active object composed of two active filaments, which represents the progression from rodlikebiofilaments to complex-shaped biofilaments. Specifically, we numerically assessed the collective behaviorsof these active objects in two dimensions and observed several types of dynamics, depending on the densityand the angle of the two filaments as shape parameters of the object. Among the observed collectivedynamics, a moving density band that we named a “moving smectic” is introduced here for the first time.By analyzing the trajectories of individual objects and the interactions among them, this study demonstrated howinteractions among active biofilaments with complex shapes could produce collective dynamics in a nontrivialmanner.

Yui Matsuda, Nobuhiko J. Suematsu, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Yumihiko S.Ikura, and *Satoshi Nakata,
Acceleration or deeleration of self-motion by the Marangoni effect,
Chemical Physics Letters 654, 92-96 (2016).

[Summary] We investigated the water-depth dependence of the self-motion of a camphor disk and camphor boat. With increasing water depth, the speed of motion of the camphor disk increased, but that of the camphor boat decreased in an annular one-dimensional system. We discussed the difference in the water-depth dependence of the speed of the camphor objects in relation to Marangoni flow. We concluded that Marangoni flow, which became stronger with increasing the water depth, positively and negatively affected the speed of the disk and boat, respectively.

Kyohei Shitara and *Takahiro Sakaue,
Shear modulus of structured electro-rheological fluid mixtures,
Physical Review E 93, 052603/1-7 (2016).

[Summary] Some immiscible blends under a strong electric field often exhibit periodic structures, bridging the gap between two electrodes. Upon shear, the structures tilt, and exhibit an elastic response which is mostly governed by the electric energy. Assuming a two-dimensional stripe structure, we calculate the Maxwell stress, and derive an expression for the shear modulus, demonstrating how it depends on the external electric field, the composition, and the dielectric properties of the blend. We also suggest the notion of effective interfacial tension, which renormalizes the effect of the electric field. This leads to a simple derivation of the scaling law for the selection of the wavelength of the structure formed under an electric field.

Hiroki Saito,
Path-integral Monte Carlo study on a droplet of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate stabilized by quantum fluctuation,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 85, 053001 (2016).

[Summary] Motivated by recent experiments [H. Kadau et al., Nature (London) 530, 194 (2016); I. Ferrier-Barbut et al., arXiv:1601.03318] and theoretical prediction (F. Wächtler and L. Santos, arXiv:1601.04501), the ground state of a dysprosium Bose–Einstein condensate with strong dipole–dipole interaction is studied by the path-integral Monte Carlo method. It is shown that quantum fluctuation can stabilize the condensate against dipolar collapse.

*Takahiro Sakaue, and Chihiro H. Nakajima,
Miscibility Phase Diagram of Ring Polymer Blends: A Topological Effect,
Physical Review E 93, 042502/1-9 (2016).

[Summary] The miscibility of polymer blends, a classical problem in polymer science, may be altered, if one or both of the component do not have chain ends. Based on the idea of topological volume, we propose a mean-field theory to clarify how the topological constraints in ring polymers affect the phase behavior of the blends. While the large enhancement of the miscibility is expected for ring-linear polymer blends, the opposite trend toward demixing, albeit comparatively weak, is predicted for ring-ring polymer blends. Scaling formulas for the shift of critical point for both cases are derived. We discuss the valid range of the present theory, and the crossover to the linear polymer blends behaviors, which is expected for short chains. These analyses put forward a view that the topological constraints could be represented as an effective excluded-volume effects, in which the topological length plays a role of the screening factor.

Itsuki Kunita, Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Atsushi Tero, Masakazu Akiyama, Shigeru Kuroda and *Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
A ciliate memorizes the geometry of a swimming arena,
The Royal Soc. Interface 13, 20160155/1-7 (2016).

[Summary] Previous studies on adaptive behaviour in single-celled organisms have given hints to the origin of their memorizing capacity. Here we report evidence that a protozoan ciliate Tetrahymena has the capacity to learn the shape and size of its swimming space. Cells confined in a small water dro-plet for a short period were found to recapitulate circular swimming trajectories upon release. The diameter of the circular trajectories and their duration reflected the size of the droplet and the period of confinement. We suggest a possible mechanism for this adaptive behaviour based on a Ca2þ channel. In our model, repeated collisions with the walls of a confining droplet result in a slow rise in intracellular calcium that leads to a long-term increase in the reversal frequency of the ciliary beat.

Ken H. Nagai, Kunihito Tachibana, Yuta Tobe, Masaki Kazama, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Seiro Omata, *Masaharu Nagayama,
Mathematical model for self-propelled droplets driven by interfacial tension,
Journal of Chemical Physics 144, 114707/1-8 (2016).

[Summary] We propose a model for the spontaneous motion of a droplet induced by inhomogeneity in interfacial tension. The model is derived from a variation of the Lagrangian of the system and we use a time-discretized Morse flow scheme to perform its numerical simulations. Our model can naturally simulate the dynamics of a single droplet, as well as that of multiple droplets, where the volume of each droplet is conserved. We reproduced the ballistic motion and fission of a droplet, and the collision of two droplets was also examined numerically.

*Yujiro Eto, Masahiro Takahashi, Keita Nabeta, Ryotaro Okada, Masaya Kunimi, Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Bouncing motion and penetration dynamics in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 93, 033615/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] We investigate the dynamic properties of bouncing and penetration in colliding binary and ternary Bose-Einstein condensates comprised of different Zeeman or hyperfine states of 87Rb. Through the application of magnetic field gradient pulses, two- or three-component condensates in an optical trap are spatially separated and then made to collide. The subsequent evolutions are classified into two categories: repeated bouncing motion and mutual penetration after damped bounces. We experimentally observed mutual penetration for immiscible condensates, bouncing between miscible condensates, and domain formation for miscible condensates. From numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we find that the penetration time can be tuned by slightly changing the atomic interaction strengths.

Tomoya Kaneda and Hiroki Saito,
Collision dynamics of Skyrmions in a two-component Bose-Einsteincondensate,
Physical Review A 93, 033611/1-6 (2016).

[Summary] The dynamics of skyrmions in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is numerically investigated in the mean-field theory. When two skyrmions collide with each other, they are first united and then scattered into various states. For head-on collisions, skyrmions with unit winding number are scattered. The collision dynamics with an impact parameter are shown to depend on the relative phase. These dynamic processes are characterized by integer winding numbers.

*Yutaka Sumino, Norifumi L. Yamada, Michihiro Nagao, Takuya Honda, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Yuri B. Melnichenko, and Hideki Seto,
Mechanism of Spontaneous Blebbing Motion of an Oil−Water Interface: Elastic Stress Generated by a Lamellar−Lamellar Transition,
Langmuir 32, 2891-2899 (2016).

[Summary] A quaternary system composed of surfactant, cosurfactant, oil, and water showing spontaneous motion of the oil–water interface under far-from-equilibrium condition is studied in order to understand nanometer-scale structures and their roles in spontaneous motion. The interfacial motion is characterized by the repetitive extension and retraction of spherical protrusions at the interface, i.e, blebbing motion. During the blebbing motion, elastic aggregates are accumulated, which were characterized as surfactant lamellar structures with mean repeat distances d of 25 to 40 nm. Still unclear is the relationship between the structure formation and the dynamics of the interfacial motion. In the present study, we find that a new lamellar structure with d larger than 80 nm is formed at the blebbing oil–water interface, while the resultant elastic aggregates, which are the one reported before, have a lamellar structure with smaller d (25 to 40 nm). Such transition of lamellar structures from the larger d to smaller d is induced by a penetration of surfactants from an aqueous phase into the aggregates. We propose a model in which elastic stress generated by the transition drives the blebbing motion at the interface. The present results explain the link between nanometer-scale transition of lamellar structure and millimeter-scale dynamics at an oil–water interface.

Ahmed Khorshid, Susan Amin, Zhiyue Zhang, Takahiro Sakaue, *Walter Reisner,
Non-Equilibrium Dynamics of Nanochannel Confined DNA,
Macromolecules 49(5), 1933–1940 (2016).

[Summary] We show that the dynamic non-equilibrium segmental concentration profile of a single nanochannel confined DNA molecule can be described via a partial differential evolution equation based on nonlinear diffusion, using an approach analogous to that used in the description of many-molecule systems such as polymer solutions. This equation can describe the segmental concentration profile of a single polymer along the nanochannel as a function of time for chain behavior ranging from states of high compression to equilibrium. In particular, to demonstrate the generality of our approach, we show that our model can describe two distinct types of experimental behavior generated via a sliding bead assay, symmetric relaxation resulting from free expansion of the polymer after compression, and the evolution of DNA concentration “shock waves” as a molecule is driven from equilibrium to a compressed state.

*Kazuya Saito, Yasuhisa Yamamura, Yohei Miwa, and Shoichi Kutsumizu,
A structural model of the chiral Im3m cubic phase,
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 18, 3280-3284 (2016).

[Summary] Assuming the twisted arrangement of rodlike molecules as the origin of the chirality as in the existing model, a new model of the molecular arrangement in the cubic "Im3m" phase is proposed. The adoption of a basic structure different from that assumed in the existing model resolves most difficulties of the model including the random placement of defects concerning the sense of twist.

Mafumi Hishida, Ryuta Yanagisawa, Hatsuho Usuda, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and *Kazuya Saito,
Communication: Rigidification of a lipid bilayer by an incorporated n-alkane,
Journal of Chemical Physics 144, 041103 (2016).

[Summary] Towards a greater understanding of the effects of organic molecules in biomembranes, the effects of a flexible alkyl chain on the morphologies of phospholipid vesicles are investigated. Vesicles composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and tetradecane (TD) rupture during cooling from the liquid–crystalline phase to the gel phase. A model calculation based on the size-dependent rupture probability indicates the bending rigidity of the bilayer in the gel phase is more than 10 times higher than that without TD, resulting in the rupture arising from elastic stress. The rigidification is caused by the denser molecular packing in the hydrophobic region by TD. There is little change of the rigidity in the liquid–crystalline phase. Additionally, the rigidification produces a characteristic morphology of the ternary giant vesicles including TD. Reported thermal behaviors imply that molecules with a linear and long alkyl chain, such as trans fatty acids, universally exhibit a similar effect, in contrast to rigid and bulky molecules, such as cholesterol.

Masanobu Horie, Tatsunari Sakurai, and *Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Experimental and theoretical approach for the clustering of globally coupled density oscillators based on phase response,
Physical Review E 93, 012212/1-9 (2016).

[Summary] We investigated the phase-response curve of a coupled system of density oscillatorswith an analytical approach. The behaviors of two-, three-, and four-coupled systems seen in the experiments were reproduced by the model considering the phase-response curve. Especially in a four-coupled system, the clustering state and its incidence rate as functions of the coupling strength are well reproduced with this approach.Moreover, we confirmed that the shape of the phase-response curve we obtained analytically was close to that observed in the experiment where a perturbation is added to a single-density oscillator. We expect that this approach to obtaining the phase-response curve is general in the sense that it could be applied to coupled systems of other oscillators such as electrical-circuit oscillators, metronomes, and so on.

Haruka Sugiura, Manami Ito, Tomoya Okuaki, Yoshihito Mori, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and *Masahiro Takinoue,
Pulse-density modulation control of chemical oscillation far from equilibrium in a droplet open-reactor system,
Nature Communications 7, 10212/1-9 (2016).

[Summary] The design, construction and control of artificial self-organized systems modelled on dynamical behaviours of living systems are important issues in biologically inspired engineering. Such systems are usually based on complex reaction dynamics far from equilibrium; therefore, the control of non-equilibrium conditions is required. Here we report a droplet open-reactor system, based on droplet fusion and fission, that achieves dynamical control over chemical fluxes into/out of the reactor for chemical reactions far from equilibrium. We mathematically reveal that the control mechanism is formulated as pulse-density modulation control of the fusion–fission timing. We produce the droplet open-reactor system using microfluidic technologies and then perform external control and autonomous feedback control over autocatalytic chemical oscillation reactions far from equilibrium. We believe that this system will be valuable for the dynamical control over self-organized phenomena far from equilibrium in chemical and biomedical studies.

Kui-Tian Xi and Hiroki Saito,
Droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interaction,
Physical Review A 93, 011604(R) (2016).

[Summary] Motivated by the recent experiment [H. Kadau et al., arXiv:1508.05007], we study roton instability and droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of Dy164 atoms with strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. We numerically solve the cubic-quintic Gross-Pitaevskii equation with dipole-dipole interaction, and show that the three-body interaction plays a significant role in the formation of droplet patterns. We numerically demonstrate the formation of droplet patterns and crystalline structures, decay of droplets, and hysteresis behavior, which are in good agreement with the experiment. Our numerical simulations provide the first prediction on the values of the three-body interaction in a Dy164 Bose-Einstein condensate. We also predict that the droplets remain stable during the time-of-flight expansion. From our results, further experiments investigating the three-body interaction in dipolar quantum gases are required.


Boris Guirao, Stéphane Rigaud, Floris Bosveld, Anaïs Bailles, Jesus Lopez-Gay, Shuji Ishihara, Kaoru Sugimura, *François Graner, *Yohanns Bellaïche,
Unified quantitative characterization of epithelial tissue development,
eLIFE , 08519 (2015).

[Summary] Understanding the mechanisms regulating development requires a quantitative characterization of cell divisions, rearrangements, cell size and shape changes, and apoptoses. We developed a multiscale formalism that relates the characterizations of each cell process to tissue growth and morphogenesis. Having validated the formalism on computer simulations, we quantifed separately all morphogenetic events in the Drosophila wing and dorsal thorax pupal epithelia to obtain comprehensive statistical maps linking cell and tissue scale dynamics. While globally cell shape changes, rearrangements and divisions all signifcantly participate in tissue morphogenesis, locally, their relative participations display major variations in space and time. By blocking division we analyzed the impact of division on rearrangements, cell shape changes and tissue morphogenesis. Finally, by combining the formalism with mechanical stress measurement, we evidenced unexpected interplays between patterns of tissue elongation, cell division and stress. Our formalism provides a novel and rigorous approach to uncover mechanisms governing tissue development.

*Hiroyuki Kitahata, Rui Tanaka, Yuki Koyano, Satoshi Matsumoto, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Tadashi Watanabe,Koji Hasegawa, Tetsuya Kanagawa, Akiko Kaneko, and Yutaka Abe,
Oscillation of a rotating levitated droplet: Analysis with a mechanical model,
Physical Review E 92, 062904/1-8 (2015).

[Summary] A droplet of millimeter-to-centimeter scale can exhibit electrostatic levitation, and such levitated droplets can be used for the measurement of the surface tension of the liquids by observing the characteristic frequency of oscillatory deformation. In the present study, a simple mechanical model is proposed by considering a single mode of oscillation in the ellipsoidal deformation of a levitated rotating droplet. By measuring the oscillation frequency with respect to the rotational speed and oscillation amplitude, it is expected that the accuracy of the surface tensionmeasurement could be improved. Using the proposed model, the dependences of the characteristic frequency of oscillatory deformation and the averaged aspect ratio are calculated with respect to the rotational angular velocity of a rotating droplet. These dependences are found to be consistent with the experimental observations.

Masanobu Tanaka, Marcel Hörning, *Hiroyuki Kitahata, and Kenichi Yoshikawa,
Elimination of a spiral wave pinned at an obstacle by a train of plane waves: Effect of diffusion between obstacles and surrounding media,
Chaos 25, 103127/1-9 (2015).

[Summary] In excitable media such as cardiac tissue and Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction medium, spiral waves tend to anchor (pin) to local heterogeneities. In general, such pinned waves are difficult to eliminate and may progress to spatio-temporal chaos. Heterogeneities can be classified as either the absence or presence of diffusive interaction with the surrounding medium. In this study, we investigated the difference in the unpinning of spiral waves from obstacles with and without diffusive interaction, and found a profound difference. The pacing period required for unpinning at fixed obstacle size is larger in case of diffusive obstacles. Further, we deduced a generic theoretical framework that can predict the minimal unpinning period. Our results explain the difference in pacing periods betweenfor the obstacles with and without diffusive interaction, and the difference is interpreted in terms of the local decrease of spiral wave velocity close to the obstacle boundary caused in the case of diffusive interaction.

*Hiroki Saito,
Can we swim in superfluids?: Numerical demonstration of self-propulsion in a Bose-Einstein condensate,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 84, 114001/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] We numerically investigated whether a deformable object can propel itself in a superfluid. Articulated bodies and multicomponent condensates are examined as swimmers. An articulated two-body swimmer cannot obtain locomotion without emitting excitations. More flexible swimmers can do so without the need to excite waves.

*Shigeru Kuroda, Seiji Takagi, Toshiyuki Nakagaki and Tetsuo Ueda,
Allometry in Physarum plasmodium during free locomotion: size versus shape, speed and rhythm,
Journal of Experimental Biology 218, 3729-3738 (2015).

[Summary] Physarum plasmodium is a giant unicellular organism whose lengthcan vary by more than three orders of magnitude. Using plasmodiaranging in size from 100 μm to 10 cm, we investigated the sizedependency of their thickness distributions and locomotion speedsduring free locomotion. (1) In the longitudinal direction, the organismis thickest close to the front, and decreases exponentially in thicknesstowards the rear. The slenderness ratio varies with body sizeaccording to a power law, such that large plasmodia are long andflat, whereas small plasmodia are short and thick. (2) The meanlocomotion speed is proportional to the mean maximum thickness ofthe frontal part. By conducting a dimensional analysis, possiblephysical models are discussed. (3) The intrinsic period of thethickness oscillation, which is related to shuttle streaming (period1–2 min), increases logarithmically with body size. (4) Variouscharacteristics exhibit size-independent, long-period (20±10 min)oscillations, including speed, shape and intrinsic thicknessoscillation period. These variations are closely coupled to formationof the entire cell shape, including undulation of thickness along thelongitudinal axis and timing of branching of the frontal tip. Based onthese experimental results and those reported previously, wepropose a simple mathematical model for cell locomotion.

*Yoshiki Hidaka, Megumi Hashiguchi, Noriko Oikawa, Shoichi Kai,
Lagrangian chaos and particle diffusion in electroconvection of planar nematic liquid crystals,
Physical Review E 92, 032909/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] Two types of spatiotemporal chaos in the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, such as defect turbulence and spatiotemporal intermittency, have been statistically investigated according to the Lagrangian picture. Here fluctuations are traced using the motion of a single particle driven by chaotic convection. In the defect turbulence (fluctuating normal rolls), a particle is mainly trapped in a roll but sometimes jumps to a neighboring roll. Its activation energy is then obtained from the jumping (hopping) rate. This research clarifies that diffusion in the defect turbulence regime in electroconvection can be regarded as a kind of hopping process. The spatiotemporal intermittency appears as a coexistent state of ordered grid domains and turbulent domains. The motion of a single particle shows weak and strong diffusion, respectively, in the ordered and turbulent domains. The diffusion characteristics intermittently change from one to another with certain durations as the domains change. This research has found that the distribution function of the duration that a particle remains in an ordered area has a power-law decay for which the index is different from that obtained by the Eulerian measurement.

Shingo Miyazaki, Tatsunari Sakurai, and *Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Coupling between a chemical wave and motion in a Belousov-Zhabotinsky droplet,
Current Physical Chemistry 5, 82-90 (2015).

[Summary] As a simple physico-chemical system that exhibits droplet motion induced by the pattern formation inside it, we investigate the motion of a droplet of Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction medium depending on the size and initial point of the chemical wave. We also observe the profile of Marangoni flow induced in the BZ droplet. In ourprevious paper, we reported the BZ-droplet motion and proposed a mechanism based on low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics. Here, we discuss the validity of the uggested mechanism based on experimental results.

*Kazuya Saito, Mafumi Hishida, and Yasuhisa Yamamura,
A Possible Critical Point for Nematic Order on the Basis of Landau Free Energy Having Dual Instabilities for Nano-Segregated Smectic Liquid Crystal”,
Soft Matter 11, 8493-8498 (2015).

[Summary] Landau expansion of free energy assuming dual instabilities for nano-segregated SmA phase is analyzed. In addition to known phase sequences (on cooling, disordered isotropic liquid => nematic phase!smectic phase, and disordered isotropic liquid => smectic phase), a new sequence (disordered isotropic liquid => density wave with subsidiary nematic order => smectic phase) and the existence of a critical point are demonstrated in case where the instability for density wave formation occurs at a higher temperature.

*Yasuaki Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and Masaharu Nagayama,
Model for calcium-mediated reduction of structural fluctuations in epidermis,
Physical Review E 92, 022709/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] We propose a reaction-advection-diffusion model of epidermis consisting of two variables, the degree of differentiation and the calcium ion concentration, where calcium ions enhance differentiation. By analytically and numerically investigating this system, we show that a calcium localization layer formed beneath the stratum corneum helps reduce spatiotemporal fluctuations of the structure of the stratum corneum. In particular, spatially or temporally small-scale fluctuations in the lower structure are suppressed and do not affect the upper structure, due to acceleration of differentiation by calcium ions. Analytical expressions for the reduction rate of fluctuation amplitudes are shown.

Toshiyuki Hosoya, Martin Miranda, Ryotaro Inoue and *Mikio Kozuma,
Injection locking of a high power ultraviolet laser diode for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms,
Review of Scientific Instruments 86, 073110/1-4 (2015).

[Summary] We developed a high-power laser system at a wavelength of 399 nm for laser cooling of ytterbium atoms with ultraviolet laser diodes. The system is composed of an external cavity laser diode providing frequency stabilized output at a power of 40 mW and another laser diode for amplifying the laser power up to 220 mW by injection locking. The systematic method for optimization of our injection locking can also be applied to high power light sources at any other wavelengths. Our system does not depend on complex nonlinear frequency-doubling and can be made compact, which will be useful for providing light sources for laser cooling experiments including transportable optical lattice clocks.

Misato Iino, *Yoshiki Hidaka, Fahrudin Nugroho, Rinto Anugraha, Hirotaka Okabe, Kazuhiro Hara,
Responses of spatiotemporal chaos to oscillating forces,
Physical Review E 92, 012916/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] The responses of soft-mode turbulence, a kind of spatiotemporal chaos seen in electroconvection of a nematic liquid crystal, to alternating-current magnetic fields is investigated to uncover the dynamical properties of spatiotemporal chaos. The dynamical responses can be measured by an order parameter, Mp(t), which indicates ordering in the convective roll pattern induced by the magnetic field. Determined by properties of the liquid crystal in a magnetic field, Mp(t) oscillates in accordance with the square of the magnetic field. The relaxation time of the system was obtained by fitting the frequency dependence of the complex susceptibility for the pattern obtained from the oscillation of Mp(t) to the Debye-type relaxation spectra. However, for the high-frequency regime, the susceptibility deviates from the spectra because slow and large fluctuations of Mp(t) contribute to the oscillation. The properties of this type of fluctuation were investigated by introducing a dynamic ordering parameter defined as the period average of Mp(t).

*Yujiro Eto, Masaya Kunimi,Hidekatsu Tokita,Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Suppression of relative flow by multiple domains in two component Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 92, 013611/1-5 (2015).

[Summary] We investigate flow properties of immiscible Bose-Einstein condensates composed of two different Zeeman spin states of 〈sup〉87〈/sup〉Rb. Two spatially overlapping condensates in the optical trap are prepared by application of a resonant radio-frequency pulse, and then the magnetic field gradient is applied in order to produce the atomic flow. We find that the spontaneous multiple-domain formation arising from the immiscible nature drastically changes the fluidity. The homogeneously overlapping condensates readily separate under the magnetic field gradient, and they form a stable configuration composed of the two layers. In contrast, the relative flow between two condensates is largely suppressed in the case where the magnetic field gradient is applied after spontaneous domain formation.

Yuki Koyano, Natsuhiko Yoshinaga, and *Hiroyuki Kitahata,
General criteria for determining rotation or oscillation in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system,
Journal of Chemical Physics 143, 014117/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] A self-propelled particle in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system, such as a particle in a central force field or confined in a circular region, may show rotational or oscillatory motion. These motions do not require asymmetry of the particle or the boundary, but arise through spontaneous symmetry breaking. We propose a generic model for a self-propelled particle in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system. A weakly nonlinear analysis establishes criteria for determining rotational or oscillatory motion.

Tomohiro Sasaki, Nobuhiko J. Suematsu, Tatsunari Sakurai, and *Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Spontaneous recurrence of deposition and dissolution of a solid layer on a solution surface,
Journal of Physical Chemistry B 119, 9970-9974 (2015).

[Summary] We investigated the spontaneous recurrence of deposition and dissolution of camphor layer on the surface of camphor methanol solution. This recurrence is a novelrhythmic process concerned with solid−liquid phase transition. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we measured the solution temperature at different times, and found that the temperature increased and decreased repetitively, correlating with the camphor layer’s deposition and dissolution. These experimental results show that the solution temperature plays an important role in recurrence of deposition and dissolution.

Martin Miranda, Ryotaro Inoue, Yuki Okuyama, Akimasa Nakamoto, and *Mikio Kozuma,
Site-resolved imaging of ytterbium atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice,
Physical Review A 91, 063414/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] We report a high-resolution microscope system for imaging ultracold ytterbium atoms trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice. By using the ultraviolet strong transition combined with a solid immersion lens and high-resolution optics, our system resolved individual sites in an optical lattice with a 544-nm spacing. Without any cooling mechanism during the imaging process, the deep potential required to contain the atoms was realized using a combination of a shallow ground-state and a deep excited-state potentials. The lifetime and limitations of this setup were studied in detail.

*Kazue Kudo and Yuki Kawaguchi,
Coarsening dynamics driven by vortex-antivortex annihilation in ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 91, 053609/1-8 (2015).

[Summary] In ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), the quadratic Zeeman effect controls magnetic anisotropy, which affects magnetic domain pattern formation. While the longitudinal magnetization is dominant (similar to the Ising model) for a negative quadratic Zeeman energy, the transverse magnetization is dominant (similar to the XY model) for a positive one. When the quadratic Zeeman energy is positive, the coarsening dynamics is driven by vortex-antivortex annihilation in the same way as the XY model. However, due to a superfluid flow of atoms, there exist several combinations of vortex-antivortex pairs in ferromagnetic BECs, which makes the coarsening dynamics more complicated than that of the XY model. We propose a revised domain growth law, which is based on the growth law of the two-dimensional XY model, for a two-dimensional ferromagnetic BEC with a positive quadratic Zeeman energy.

Mafumi Hishida, Asami Endo, Koyomi Nakazawa, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and *Kazuya Saito ,
Effect of n-alkanes on lipid bilayers depending on headgroups,
Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 188, 61-67 (2015).

[Summary] Phase behavior and structural properties were examined for bilayers of phospholipids with different headgroups (DMPC, DMPS and DMPE) while adding n-alkanes to study effect of flexible additives. Change in the temperatures of main transition of the lipid/alkane mixtures against the length of added alkanes depends largely on the headgroup. Theoretical analysis of the change of the temperature of transition indicates that the headgroup dependence is dominantly originated in the strong dependence of total enthalpy on the headgroups. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the enthalpic stabilization due to enhanced packing of lipid molecules by alkanes in the gel phase causes the headgroup-dependent change in the phase transition behavior. The enhanced packing in the gel phase also lead to easy emergence of the subgel phase with very short relaxation times at room temperature in the DMPE-based bilayers.

*Daisuke Takahashi, Michikazu Kobayashi, and Muneto Nitta,
Nambu-Goldstone Modes Propagating along Topological Defects: Kelvin and Ripple Modes from Small to Large Systems,
Physical Review B 91, 184501-1-19 (2015).

[Summary] Nambu-Goldstone modes associated with (topological) defects such as vortices and domain walls in (super)fluids are known to possess quadratic/noninteger dispersion relations in finite/infinite-size systems. Here, we report interpolating formulas connecting the dispersion relations in finite- and infinite-size systems for Kelvin modes along a quantum vortex and ripplons on a domain wall in superfluids. Our method can provide not only the dispersion relations but also the explicit forms of quasiparticle wave functions ( u,v ). We find a completeagreement between the analytical formulas and numerical simulations. All these formulas are derived in a fully analytical way, and hence not empirical ones. We also discuss common structures in the derivation of these formulas and speculate on the general procedure.

Jaka Fajar Fatriansyah and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Electric-field-induced flow-aligning state in a nematic liquid crystal,
Physical Review E 91, 042508/1-7 (2015).

[Summary] The response of shear stress to a weak ac electric field as a probe is measured in a nematic liquid crystal undershear flow and dc electric fields. Two states with different responses are clearly observed when the dc electricfield is changed at a constant shear rate: the flow aligning and non–flow aligning states. The director lies in theshear plane in the flow aligning state and out of the plane in the non–flow aligning state. Through applicationof dc electric field, the non–flow aligning state can be changed to the flow aligning state. In the transition fromthe flow aligning state to the non–flow aligning state, it is found that the response increases and the relaxationtime becomes longer. Here, the experimental results in the flow aligning state are discussed on the basis of theEricksen-Leslie theory.

*Hiroki Saito and Masaya Kunimi,
Energy shift of magnons in a ferromagnetic spinor-dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review A 91, 041603(R)/1-4 (2015).

[Summary] Motivated by the recent experiment performed by the Berkeley group [G. E. Marti et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165301 (2014)], we consider the dynamics of magnons in a spin-1 spinor-dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, using mean-field theory. We show that the effective mass of a magnon is increased by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, as observed in the experiment. The magnon mass is also decreased by changing the direction of the magnetic field. The increase and decrease in the magnon mass manifest themselves in the acceleration of the magnons.

Masaya Kunimi* and Hiroki Saito,
Upper bound of one-magnon excitation and lower bound of effective mass for ferromagnetic spinor Bose and Fermi gases,
Physical Review A 91, 043624/1-6 (2015).

[Summary] Using a variationalmethod, we derive an exact upper bound for one-magnon excitation energy in ferromagneticspinor gases, which limits the quantum corrections to the effective mass of a magnon to be positive. We alsoderive an upper bound for one-magnon excitation energy in lattice systems. The results hold for both Bose andFermi systems in d dimensions as long as the interaction is local and invariant under spin rotation.

*Kenji Kashima, Toshiyuki Ogawa, Tatsunari Sakurai,
Selective pattern formation control: Spatial spectrum consensus and Turing instability approach,
Automatica 56, 25-35 (2015).

[Summary] Autonomous pattern formation phenomena are ubiquitous throughout nature. The goal of this paper is to show the possibility to effectively generate various desired spatial patterns by guiding such phenomena suitably. To this end, we employ a reaction–diffusion system as a mathematical model, and formulate and solve a novel pattern formation control problem. First, we describe the control objective in terms of spatial spectrum consensus, which enables utilize recent advances on networked control system theory. Next, the effectiveness of the proposed control law is evaluated theoretically by exploiting the center manifold theorem, and also numerically by simulation. The Turing instabilities play a crucial role throughout the paper.

*Wataru Kurebayashi, Sho Shirasaka, and Hiroya Nakao,
A criterion for timescale decomposition of external inputs for generalized phase reduction of limit-cycle oscillators,
Nonlinear Theory and Its Applications (IEICE) 6, 171-180 (2015).

[Summary] The phase reduction method is a dimension reduction method for weakly driven limit-cycle oscillators, which has played an important role in the theoretical analysis of synchronization phenomena. Recently, we proposed a generalization of the phase reduction method [W. Kurebayashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 2013]. This generalized phase reduction method can robustly predict the dynamics of strongly driven oscillators, for which the conventional phase reduction method fails. In this generalized method, the external input to the oscillator should be properly decomposed into a slowly varying component and remaining weak fluctuations. In this paper, we propose a simple criterion for timescale decomposition of the external input, which gives accurate prediction of the phase dynamics and enables us to systematically apply the generalized phase reduction method to a general class of limit-cycle oscillators. The validity of the criterion is confirmed by numerical simulations.

Takuya Yanagimachi, Mafumi HIshida, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and Kazuya Saito,
Ultraslow oscillation of nematic disclination after abrupt switching of DC voltage,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 84, 033601/1-4 (2015).

[Summary] A slow damped oscillation of nematic disclination was observed after abrupt (step-wise) change of DC electric field. The oscillation was not observed under high frequency AC field. These results imply that molecular reorientation in-fluence disclination dynamics after abrupt switching. An effective model, different from the elastic theory, was proposed to analyze the results.

*Jean-Paul Rieu, Helene Delano-Ayari, Seiji Takagi, Yoshimi Tanaka, Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Periodic traction in migrating large amoeba of Physarum Polycephalum,
Journal of Royal Society Interface 12, 20150099 (2015).

[Summary] The slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a giant multinucleated cell exhibiting well-known Ca2þ-dependent actomyosin contractions of its vein network driving the so-called cytoplasmic shuttle streaming. Its actomyosinnetwork forms both a filamentous cortical layer and large fibrils. In order to understand the role of each structure in the locomotory activity, we performedbirefringence observations and traction force microscopy on excised fragments of Physarum. After several hours, these microplasmodia adopt three main morphologies: flat motile amoeba, chain types with round contractile heads connected by tubes and motile hybrid types. Each typeexhibits oscillations with a period of about 1.5 min of cell area, traction forces and fibril activity (retardance) when fibrils are present. The amoeboid types show only peripheral forces while the chain types present a neverreported force pattern with contractile rings far from the cell boundary under the spherical heads. Forces are mostly transmitted where the actomyosin cortical layer anchors to the substratum, but fibrils maintain highly invaginated structures and contribute to forces by increasing the length of the anchorage line. Microplasmodia are motile only when there is an asymmetry in the shape and/or the force distribution.

*Yuji Sasaki, Hikaru Hoshikawa, Takafumi Seto, Fumiaki Kobayashi, V. S. R. Jampani, Stephan Herminghaus, Christian Bahr, and Hiroshi Orihara,
Direct visualization of spatiotemporal structure of self-assembled colloidal particles in electrohydrodynamic flow of a nematic liquid crystal,
Langmuir 31, 3815-3819 (2015).

[Summary] Characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics is of vital importance to soft matter systems far from equilibrium. Using a confocal laser scanning microscopy, we directly reveal three-dimensional motion of surface-modified particles in the electrohydrodynamic convection of a nematic liquid crystal. Particularly, visualizing a caterpillar-like motion of a self-assembled colloidal chain demonstrates the mechanism of the persistent transport enabled by the elastic, electric, and hydrodynamic contributions. We also precisely show how the particles’ trajectory is spatially modified by simply changing the surface boundary condition.

*Yoji Kawamura, Hiroya Nakao,
Phase description of oscillatory convection with a spatially translational mode,
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 295-296, 11–29 (2015).

[Summary] We formulate a theory for the phase description of oscillatory convection in a cylindrical Hele–Shaw cell that is laterally periodic. This system possesses spatial translational symmetry in the lateral direction owing to the cylindrical shape as well as temporal translational symmetry. Oscillatory convection in this system is described by a limit-torus solution that possesses two phase modes; one is a spatial phase and the other is a temporal phase. The spatial and temporal phases indicate the “position” and “oscillation” of the convection, respectively. The theory developed in this paper can be considered as a phase reduction method for limit-torus solutions in infinite-dimensional dynamical systems, namely, limit-torus solutions to partial differential equations representing oscillatory convection with a spatially translational mode. We derive the phase sensitivity functions for spatial and temporal phases; these functions quantify the phase responses of the oscillatory convection to weak perturbations applied at each spatial point. Using the phase sensitivity functions, we characterize the spatiotemporal phase responses of oscillatory convection to weak spatial stimuli and analyze the spatiotemporal phase synchronization between weakly coupled systems of oscillatory convection.

*Satoshi Nakata, Shogo Suzuki, Takato Ezaki, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Kei Nishi, and Yasumasa Nishiura,
Response of a chemical wave to local pulse irradiation in the ruthenium-catalyzed Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction,
Physical Chemistry Chemistry Physics 17, 9148-9152 (2015).

[Summary] The photo-sensitive Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction system was investigated to understand the response of wave propagation to local pulse stimulation in an excitable field. When the chemical wave was irradiated with a bright pulse or a dark pulse, the speed of wave propagation decreased or increased. The timing of pulse irradiation that significantly affected the speed of chemical wave propagation was different with the bright and dark pulses. That is, there is a sensitive point in the chemical wave. The experimental results were qualitatively reproduced by a numerical calculation based on a three-variable Oregonator model that was modified for the photosensitive BZ reaction. These results suggest that the chemical wave is sensitive to the timing of pulse irradiation due to the rates of production of an activator and an inhibitor in the photochemical reaction.


*Yang Ho Na, Yuki Aburaya, Hiroshi Orihara, Kazuyuki Hiraoka, and Youngbae Han,
Electrically induced deformation in chiral smectic elastomers with different domain structures,
Physical Review E 90, 062507/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] Electrical actuation is investigated in two kinds of chiral smectic liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) with different domain structures LCE1 and LCE2: The latter is better than the former in orientational order. Tracking fluorescent beads dispersed on the samples enables us to measure the two-dimensional strain tensors in ferroelectric elastomer films. It turns out that the electric-field-induced strain is polarity dependent and the type of molecular orientation responsible for the strain is specified. In LCE1 the shear strain is dominant, whereas in LCE2 it is comparable to the elongation strain, which is explained by the rotation of the principal axes. The essential differences of the two elastomers are observed in the eigenvalues of the strain tensors. The absolute values for LCE1 are larger than those for LCE2. The difference is discussed on the basis of the domain structures.

*Masaya Kunimi,
Metastable spin textures and Nambu-Goldstone modes of a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a ring trap,
Physical Review A 90, 063632/1-8 (2014).

[Summary] We investigate the metastability of a ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quasi-onedimensionalrotating ring trap by solving the spin-1 Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find analytical solutions thatexhibit spin textures. By performing linear stability analysis, it is shown that the solutions can become metastablestates. We also find that the number of Nambu-Goldstone modes changes at a certain rotation velocity withoutchanging the continuous symmetry of the order parameter.

Yuji Sasaki, Yoshinori Takikawa, V. S. R. Jampani, Hikaru Hoshikawa, Takafumi Seto, Christian Bahr, Stephan Herminghaus, Yoshiki Hidaka, and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Colloidal caterpillars for cargo transportation,
Soft Matter 10, 8813–8820 (2014).

[Summary] Tunable transport of tiny objects in fluid systems is demanding in diverse fields of science such as drug delivery,active matter far from equilibrium, and lab-on-a-chip applications. Here, we report the directed motion ofcolloidal particles and self-assembled colloidal chains in a nematic liquid crystal matrix using electrohydrodynamic convection (EHC) rolls. The asymmetric distortion of the molecular orientation around the particles results – for single particles – in a hopping motion from one EHC roll to the next and – for colloidal chains – in a caterpillar-like motion in the direction perpendicular to the roll axes. We demonstrate the use of colloidal chains as microtraction engines for the transport of various types of microcargo.

Tomoya Kaneda and Hiroki Saito,
Dynamics of a vortex dipole across a magnetic phase boundary in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review A 90, 053632/1-7 (2014).

[Summary] The dynamics of a vortex dipole in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate in which magnetic phases are spatially distributed is investigated. When a vortex dipole travels from the ferromagnetic phase to the polar phase, or vice versa, it penetrates the phase boundary and transforms into one of the various spin vortex dipoles, such as a leapfrogging ferromagnetic-core vortex dipole and a half-quantum vortex dipole. Topological connections of spin wave functions across the phase boundary are discussed.

Akihiko Nakajima, Shuji Ishihara, Daisuke Imoto, and *Satoshi Sawai,
Rectified directional sensing in long-range cell migration,
Nature Communications 5, 5367/1-14 (2014).

[Summary] How spatial and temporal information are integrated to determine the direction of cell migration remains poorly understood. Here, by precise microfluidics emulation of dynamic chemoattractant waves, we demonstrate that, in Dictyostelium, directional movement as well as activation of small guanosine triphosphatase Ras at the leading edge is suppressed when the chemoattractant concentration is decreasing over time. This ‘rectification’ of directional sensing occurs only at an intermediate range of wave speed and does not require phosphoinositide-3-kinase or F-actin. From modelling analysis, we show that rectification arises naturally in a single-layered incoherent feedforward circuit with zero-order ultrasensitivity. The required stimulus time-window predicts ~5 s transient for directional sensing response close to Ras activation and inhibitor diffusion typical for protein in the cytosol. We suggest that the ability of Dictyostelium cells to move only in the wavefront is closely associated with rectification of adaptive response combined with local activation and global inhibition.

*Michikazu Kobayashi, and Muneto Nitta,
Nonrelativistic Nambu-Goldstone Modes Associated with Spontaneously Broken Space-Time and Internal Symmetries,
Physical Review Letters 113, 120403/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We show that a momentum operator of a translational symmetry may not commute with an internal symmetry operator in the presence of a topological soliton in nonrelativistic theories. As a striking consequence, there appears a coupled Nambu-Goldstone mode with a quadratic dispersion consisting of translational and internal zero modes in the vicinity of a domain wall in an O(3) σ model, a magnetic domain wall in ferromagnets with an easy axis.

Jaka Fajar Fatriansyah, Yuji Sasaki, and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Nonequilibrium steady-state response of a nematic liquid crystal under simple shear flow and electric fields,
Physical Review E 90, 032504/1-8 (2014).

[Summary] The effect of a dc electric field on the response of a nematic liquid crystal under shear flow has been investigated by measuring the shear stress response to an ac electric field used as a probe. It was found that both the first- and second-order responses do not vanish at high frequencies, but have constant nonzero values. The experimental results are in good agreement with calculations based on the Ericksen-Leslie theory. The role of the Parodi relation (which is derived from the Onsager reciprocal relation) in the stress response is discussed.

Mafumi Hishida, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and *Kazuya Saito,
Salt effects on lamellar repeat distance depending on head groups of neutrally charged lipids,
Langmuir 30, 10583-10589 (2014).

[Summary] Change in lamellar repeat distances of neutrally charged lipids upon addition of monovalent salts was measured with small-angle X-ray scattering for combinations of two lipids (PC and PE lipids) and six salts. Large dependence on lipid head group is observed in addition to those on added cation and anion. The ion and lipid dependences have little correlation with measured surface potentials of lipid membranes. These results indicate that the lamellar swelling by salt is not explained through balance among interactions considered previously (van der Waals interaction, electrostatic repulsion emerged by ion binding, etc.). It is suggested that effect of water structure, which is affected by not only ions but also lipid itself, should be taken into account for understanding membrane−membrane interactions, as in the Hofmeister effect.

Koyomi Nakazawa, Mafumi Hishida, Shigenori Nagatomo, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and *Kazuya Saito,
Interplay between phase transition of DPPC bilayer and photoisomerization of doped stilbene molecule,
Chemistry Letters 43, 1352-1354 (2014).

[Summary] Cis-trans conformational change of incorporated stilbene in lipid bilayer and the phase-transition behavior of the lipid show strong correlation to each other: Phase-transition temperature is lower with cis-stilbene than with trans-stilbene, whereas photoisomerization rate of stilbene is affected by the phase of the lipid.

*Yujiro Eto, Mark Sadgrove, Sho Hasegawa, Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Control of spin current in a Bose gas by periodic application of π pulses,
Physical Review A 90, 013626/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] We generate spin currents in an 87Rb spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate by application of a magnetic field gradient. The spin current destroys the spin polarization, leading to a sudden onset of two-body collisions. In addition, the spin coherence, as measured by the fringe contrast using Ramsey interferometry, is reduced drastically but experiences a weak revival due to in-trap oscillations. The spin current can be controlled using periodic π pulses (bang-bang control), producing longer spin-coherence times. Our results show that spin coherence can be maintained even in the presence of spin currents, with applications to quantum sensing in noisy environments.

Tsuyoshi Kadokura, Jun Yoshida, and Hiroki Saito,
Hysteresis in quantized vortex shedding,
Physical Review A 90, 013612/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] It is shown using numerical simulations that flow patterns around an obstacle potential moving in a superfluid exhibit hysteresis. In a certain velocity region, there is a bistability between stationary laminar flow and periodic vortex shedding. The bistability exists in two- and three-dimensional systems.

*Yoshiki Hidaka and Noriko Oikawa,
Chaos and Spatiotemporal Chaos in Convective Systems,
FORMA 29, 29-32 (2014).

[Summary] Much of early research on chaos from the viewpoint of physics was performed using spatially confined convective systems. In spatially extended convective systems, on the other hand, spatiotemporal chaos occurs. However, there is no unified definition for the term spatiotemporal chaos as for chaos. To unify definition, a property common to the three kinds of spatiotemporal chaos observed in electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals is presented.

*Michikazu Kobayashi, and Muneto Nitta,
Nonrelativistic Nambu-Goldstone modes propagating along a Skyrmion line,
Physical Review D 90, 025010/1-9 (2014).

[Summary] We study Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes or gapless modes propagating along a Skyrmion (lump) line in a relativistic and nonrelativistic O(3) sigma model, the latter of which describes isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnets. We show for the nonrelativistic case that there appear two coupled gapless modes with a quadratic dispersion. In addition to the well-known Kelvin mode consisting of two translational zero modes transverse to the Skyrmion line, we show that the other consists of a magnon and dilaton, that is, a NG mode for a spontaneously broken internal U(1) symmetry and a quasi-NG mode for a spontaneously broken scale symmetry of the equation of motion. We find that the commutation relations of Noether charges admit a central extension between the dilatation and phase rotation, in addition to the one between two translations found recently. The counting rule is consistent with the Nielsen-Chadha and Watanabe-Brauner relations only when we take into account quasi-NG modes.

*Wataru Kurebayashi, Tsubasa Ishii, Mikio Hasegawa, and Hiroya Nakao,
Design and control of noise-induced synchronization patterns,
EPL (Europhysics Letters) 107, 10009/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] We propose a method for controlling synchronization patterns of limit-cycle oscillators by common noisy inputs, i.e., by utilizing noise-induced synchronization. Various synchronization patterns, including fully synchronized and clustered states, can be realized by using linear filters that generate appropriate common noisy signals from given noise. The optimal linear filter can be determined from the linear phase response property of the oscillators and the power spectrum of the given noise. The validity of the proposed method is confirmed by numerical simulations.

*Satoshi Nakata, Tomoaki Ueda, Tatsuya Miyaji, Yui Matsuda, Yukiteru Katsumoto, Hiroyuki Kitahata, Takafumi Shimoaka, and Takeshi Hasegawa,
Transient reciprocating motion of a self-propelled object controlled by a molecular layer of a N‑stearoyl‑p‑nitroaniline: dependence on the temperature of an aqueous phase,
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 14888-14893 (2014).

[Summary] The mode-bifurcation of a self-propelled system inducedby the property of a N-stearoyl-p-nitroaniline (C18ANA) monolayer developed on an aqueous phase was studied. A camphor disk was placed on a C18ANA monolayer, which indicated a characteristic surface pressure−area (π−A) isotherm. A camphor disk transiently exhibited reciprocating motion at a higher surface density of C18ANA. The amplitude of the reciprocating motion increased with an increase in the temperature of the aqueous phase below 290 K, but reciprocating motionvaried to irregular motion over 290 K. The temperature-dependent reciprocating motion is discussed in terms of the π−A curve for C18ANA depending on the temperature. The interaction between C18ANA molecules was measured by Fourier transform IR spectrometry and Brewster-angle microscopy. As an extension of the study, the trajectory ofreciprocating motion could be determined by writing with a camphor pen on the C18ANA monolayer.

*Nobuhiko J. Suematsu, Tomohiro Sasaki, Satoshi Nakata, and Hiroyuki Kitahata,
Quantitative estimation of the parameters for self-motion driven by difference in surface tension,
Langmuir 30, 8101-8108 (2014).

[Summary] Quantitative information on the parameters associated with self-propelled objects would enhance the potential of this research field; for example, finding a realistic way to develop a functional self-propelled object and quantitative understanding of the mechanism of self-motion. We therefore estimated five main parameters, including the driving force, of a camphor boat as a simple self-propelled object that spontaneously moves on water due to difference in surface tension. The experimental results and mathematical model indicated that the camphor boat generated a driving force of 4.2 μN, which corresponds to a difference in surface tension of 1.1 mN m−1. The methods used in this study are not restricted to evaluate the parameters of self-motion of a camphor boat, but can be applied to other self-propelled objects driven by difference in surface tension. Thus, our investigation provides a novel method to quantitatively estimate the parameters for self-propelled objects driven by the interfacial tension difference.

Masahiro Takahashi, Takeshi Mizushima, and Kazushige Machida,
FFLO Multi-Phase Transition in Two-Band Superconductor,
JPS Conference Proceedings 3, 015022 (2014).

[Summary] We study the phase diagram of Pauli-limiting two-band superconductors in the plane of an external magnetic field and temperature, based on the mean field approximation. In the case of a single-band superconductor, the superconducting phase diagram consists of two phases, Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer state in the lower field and Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state in the higher field. In the case of two-band superconductors, there are competing two length scales originated by first and second bands. Due to the competing length scales, the FFLO phase is divided into multiple — actually infinitely many — phases. We discuss the mechanism of the multiple phase transition.

*Itsuki Kunita, Shigeru Kuroda, Kaito Ooki, Toshiyuki Nakagaki,
Attempts to retreat from a dead-ended long capillary by backward swimming in Paramecium,
Frontiers in Microbiology 5, Article 270 (1-8) (2014).

[Summary] We have observed how the ciliate {\it Paramecium} attempts to retreat from the dead-end of a long capillary that is too narrow in which to turn. After many trial-and-error episodes of short-term backward swimming (SBS), which is the conventional avoidance behavior exhibited in free swimming when an obstacle is faced, long-term backward swimming (LBS) that lasted five to ten times longer was developed. LBS may have a beneficial effect for complete withdrawal from the capillary space, although in our experiment it was impossible for the organism to do so due to the capillary length. In order to identify a physically possible mechanism for LBS, we propose model equations for the membrane potential of Hodgkin-Huxley type, which describe the control of ciliary movement. The physiological implications and physical mechanism of the development of LBS are discussed.

*Nen Saito, Shuji Ishihara, and Kunihiko Kaneko,
Evolution of Genetic Redundancy : The Relevance of Complexity in Genotype-Phenotype Mapping,
New Journal of Physics 16, 063013/1-14 (2014).

[Summary] Despite its ubiquity among organisms, genetic redundancy is presumed to reduce total population fitness and is therefore unlikely to evolve. This study evaluates an evolutionary model with high-dimensional genotype–phenotype mapping (GPM) by applying a replica method to deal with quenched randomness. From the method, the dependence of fitness on genetic redundancy is analytically calculated. The results demonstrate that genetic redundancy can have higher population fitness under complex GPM, which tends to favor gene duplication in selection processes, further enhancing the potential for evolutionary innovations.

*Hiroki Saito,
Comment on “Ground-state fragmentation phase transition for attractive bosons in anisotropic traps”,
Physical Review A 89, 067601/1-2 (2014).

[Summary] In a recent article [Phys. Rev. A 88, 063641 (2013)], Cizek and Kasevich claimed that quantum fragmentation occurs in the metastable state of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an attractive interaction confined in an elongated harmonic potential. This result was obtained using the two-state Gaussian variational method. However, modified methods show that no fragmentation occurs for the parameters used by Cizek and Kasevich.

*Hiroya Nakao, Tatsuo Yanagita, Yoji Kawamura,
Phase-Reduction Approach to Synchronization of Spatiotemporal Rhythms in Reaction-Diffusion Systems,
Physical Review X 4, 021032/1-23 (2014).

[Summary] Reaction-diffusion systems can describe a wide class of rhythmic spatiotemporal patterns observed in chemical and biological systems, such as circulating pulses on a ring, oscillating spots, target waves, and rotating spirals. These rhythmic dynamics can be considered limit cycles of reaction-diffusion systems. However, the conventional phase-reduction theory, which provides a simple unified framework for analyzing synchronization properties of limit-cycle oscillators subjected to weak forcing, has mostly been restricted to low-dimensional dynamical systems. Here, we develop a phase-reduction theory for stable limit-cycle solutions of reaction-diffusion systems with infinite-dimensional state space. By generalizing the notion of isochrons to functional space, the phase-sensitivity function—a fundamental quantity for phase reduction—is derived. For illustration, several rhythmic dynamics of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of excitable media are considered. Nontrivial phase-response properties and synchronization dynamics are revealed, reflecting their complex spatiotemporal organization. Our theory will provide a general basis for the analysis and control of spatiotemporal rhythms in various reaction-diffusion systems.

*Yujiro Eto, Hiroki Saito, and Takuya Hirano,
Observation of dipole-induced spin texture in an 87Rb spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate,
Physical Review Letters 112, 185301/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We report the formation of spin texture resulting from the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in a spin-2 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. The spinor condensate is prepared in the transversely polarized spin state and the time evolution is observed under a magnetic field of 90 mG with a gradient of 3  mG/cm using Stern-Gerlach imaging. The experimental results are compared with numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which reveals that the observed spatial modulation of the longitudinal magnetization is due to the spin precession in an effective magnetic field produced by the dipole-dipole interaction. These results show that the dipole-dipole interaction has considerable effects even on spinor condensates of alkali metal atoms.

Michikazu Kobayashi, and *Eiji Nakano, and Muneto Nitta,
Color Magnetism in Non-Abelian Vortex Matter,
Journal of High Energy Physics 6, 130/1-12 (2014).

[Summary] We propose color magnetism as a generalization of the ordinary Heisenberg (anti-)ferro magnets on a triangular lattice. Vortex matter consisting of an Abrikosov lattice of non-Abelian vortices with color magnetic fluxes shows a color ferro or anti-ferro magnetism, depending on the interaction among the vortex sites. A prime example is a non-Abelian vortex lattice in rotating dense quark matter, showing a color ferromagnetism. We show that the low-energy effective theory for the vortex lattice system in the color ferromagnetic phase is described by a 3+1 dimensional.

*Mafumi Hishida, Koichiro Tanaka, Yasuhisa Yamamura, and Kazuya Saito,
Cooperativity between water and lipids in lamellar to inverted-hexagonal phase transition,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 83, 044801 (2014).

[Summary] It has been unclear whether the role of water in the self-assembly of soft materials and biomolecules is influential or water is just a background medium. Here we investigate the correlation between hydration state of lipid membrane and structural phase transition of the membrane between lamellar and inverted-hexagonal phases, as an intermediate process of membrane fusion, by using the complementary techniques of X-ray scattering and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. By comparing two lipid species, our results indicate that the structural changes of the lipid membrane depend on the behavior of the surrounding water, especially in the second hydration layer, in addition to the molecular shape of lipids. The water behaves differently at each membrane surface owing to the different hydrophilicities of the lipid head groups.

Masahiro Kazama, *Wataru Kurebayashi, Takahiro Tsuchida, Yuta Minoshima, Mikio Hasegawa, Koji Kimura, and Hiroya Nakao,
Enhancement of noise correlation for noise-induced synchronization of limit-cycle oscillators by threshold filtering,
NOLTA, IEICE 5, 157-171 (2014).

[Summary] Nonlinear oscillators driven by correlated noisy signals can synchronize without di- rect mutual interactions. Here we show that correlation between noisy signals can be enhanced by applying a threshold filter, and the filtered signals can be used to improve noise-induced synchronization. We derive analytical expressions for the correlation coefficient between the filtered signals, and, using simple examples, we demonstrate that the correlation can actually be enhanced and the synchronization can be improved by the threshold filtering in some cases.

Satoshi Aya, Yuji Sasaki, Damian Pociecha, Fumito Araoka, Ewa Gorecka, Kenji Ema, Igor Musevic, Hiroshi Orihara, Ken Ishikawa, and *Hideo Takezoe,
Stepwise heat-capacity change at an orientation transition in liquid crystals,
Physical Review E 89, 022512 (2014).

[Summary] During a phase transition in a bulk material, heat is exchanged with matter to balance the changes in the internal energy and the entropy of the system. Here we report on the thermal detection of a surface-mediated anchoring transition, a spontaneous and discontinuous orientation change between planar (P) and homeotropic (H) alignments within a single nematic phase by changing temperature. In this case a stepwise change in the heat flow, similar to a glass transition, is observed by means of high-resolution differential scanning calorimetry. We found that the jump in the specific heat does not depend on the sample volume, although the contribution of molecules in the vicinity of surfaces, which trigger the transition, becomes less with increasing the sample volume. This means that different molecular orientations, H and P, with respect to surfaces have different thermodynamic free energies. We also address why the anchoring transition occurs by means of Grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction measurements, which clearly reveal the formation of quasi-smectic layers parallel to surfaces in the nematic phase.

*Masahiro Takahashi, Takeshi Mizushima, and Kazushige Machida,
Multi-band effects on Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states of Pauli-limited superconductors,
Physical Review B 89, 064505/1-16 (2014).

[Summary] Multi-band effects on Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states of a Pauli-limiting two-band superconductor are studied theoretically, based on self-consistent calculations of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. First, we examine the phase diagrams of two-band systems with a passive band in which the intraband pairing interaction is absent and superconductivity is induced by a Cooper pair tunneling from an active band. It is demonstrated that the temperature of the Lifshitz point at which three second-order transition lines meet is independent of the Cooper pair tunneling strength. The BCS-FFLO critical field becomes lower than the Lifshitz point with increasing the interband tunneling strength, and the resultant phase diagram is qualitatively different from that in a single-band superconductor. We also study the thermodynamics of Pauli-limiting two-band superconductors with comparable intraband pairing interactions. As a consequence of a competing effect between two bands, the FFLO phase is divided into two phases: Q1- and Q2-FFLO phases. The Q1-FFLO is favored in a high field regime and the Q2-FFLO becomes stable in the lower field. In a particular case, the latter is further subdivided into a family of FFLO states with rational modulation lengths, leading to a devil's staircase structure in the field-dependence of physical quantities. The critical field, above which the FFLO is stabilized, is lower than that in a single band superconductor, while the temperature of tricritical Lifshitz point is invariant under the change of two-band parameters.

*Hiroki Saito,
Many-body dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate collapsing by quantum tunneling,
Physical Review A 89, 023610/1-6 (2014).

[Summary] The dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms having attractive interactions is studied using quantum many-body simulations. The collapse of the condensate by quantum tunneling is numerically demonstrated, and the tunneling rate is calculated. The correlation properties of the quantum many-body state are investigated.

Keita Iida, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and *Masaharu Nagayama,
Theoretical study on the translation and rotation of an elliptic camphor particle,
Physica D 272, 39-50 (2014).

[Summary] The spontaneous motion of an elliptic camphor particle floating on water is studied theoretically and experimentally. Considering a mathematical model for the motion of an elliptic camphor particle in a two-dimensional space, we first investigate the asymptotic solutions with umerical computation. We then introduce a small parameter ε into the definition of the particle shape, which represents an elliptic deformation from a circular shape and, by means of perturbation theory, we analytically alculate the travelling solution to within O(ε). The results show that short-axis-directed travelling solutions primarily bifurcate from stationary solutions and that long-axis-directed ones are secondary which means that elliptic camphor particles are easier to move in the short-axis direction. Furthermore, we show that rotating solutions bifurcate from stationary solutions and that the bifurcation point changes with O(ε2), which suggests that elliptic camphor disks easily exhibit translational motion, rather than rotational, within the small deformation. Finally, our theoretical suggestions are confirmed by an experiment.

Masahiro Takahashi, Takeshi Mizushima, and Kazushige Machida,
Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov States in Two-Band Superconductors,
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 83, 023703/1-5 (2014).

[Summary] We examine the possible phase diagram in an H–T plane for Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states in a two-band Pauli-limiting superconductor. We here demonstrate that, as a result of the competition of two different modulation lengthscales, the FFLO phase is divided into two phases by the first-order transition: the Q1- and Q2-FFLO phases at the higher and lower fields. The Q2-FFLO phase is further divided by successive first order transitions into an infinite family of FFLO subphases with rational modulation vectors, forming a devil’s staircase structure for the field dependences of the modulation vector and paramagnetic moment. The critical magnetic field above which the FFLO is stabilized is lower than that in a single-band superconductor. However, the tricritical Lifshitz point L at TL is invariant under two-band parameter changes.


Yoshinori Takikawa and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Persistence of Brownian motion in shear flow,
Physical Review E 88, 062111/1-5 (2013).

[Summary] The persistence of a Brownian particle in a shear flow is investigated. The persistence probability P(t) , which is the probability that the particle does not return to its initial position up to time t, is known to obey a power law . Since the displacement of a particle along the flow direction due to convection is much larger than that due to Brownian motion, we define an alternative displacement in which the convection effect is removed. We derive theoretically the two-time correlation function and the persistence exponent  of this displacement. The exponent has different values at short and long times. The theoretical results are compared with experiment and a good agreement is found.

Masaru Suzuki, Hiroshi Sueto, Yusaku Hosokawa, Naoyuki Muramoto, Takayuki Narumi, Yoshiki Hidaka, and Shoichi Kai,
Duality of diffusion dynamics in particle motion in soft-mode turbulence,
Physical Review E 88, 42147 (2013).

[Summary] Nonthermal Brownian motion is investigated experimentally by injecting a particle into soft-mode turbulence (SMT), in the electroconvection of a nematic liquid crystal. It is clarified that the particle motion can be classified into two phases: fast motion, where particles move with the local convective flow, and slow motion, where they are carried by global slow pattern dynamics. We propose a simplified model to clarify the mechanism of the short-time and asymptotic behavior of diffusion. In our model, the correlation time is estimated as a function of a control parameter ɛ. The scaling of the SMT pattern correlation time, τ_d ∼ ɛ^−1, is estimated from the particle dynamics, which is consistent with a previous report observed from the Eulerian viewpoint. The origin of the non-Gaussian distribution of the displacement in the short-time regime is also discussed and an analytical curve is introduced that quantitatively agrees with the experimental data. Our results clearly illustrate the characteristics of diffusive motion in SMT, which are considerably different from the conventional Brownian motion.

Ryo Tanaka, Tomonori Nomoto, Taro Toyota, Hiroyuki Kitahata, and *Masanori Fujinami,
Delayed response of interfacial tension in propagating chemical waves of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction without stirring,
The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 117, 13893–13898 (2013).

[Summary] Time-resolved measurements of the interfacial tension of propagating chemical waves of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction based on the iron complex catalysts were carried out without stirring by monitoring the frequency of capillary waves with the quasi-elastic laser scattering method. A delayed response of the interfacial tension with respect to absorption was found with the delay being ligand-dependent when the reaction was conducted at a liquid/liquid interface. This behavior is attributed to differences in adsorption activity of the hydrophobic metal catalyst. The delay time and the increase in interfacial tension were also reproduced by a model considering the rate constants of equilibrium adsorption.

*Yujiro Eto, Hayato Ikeda, Hirosuke Suzuki, Sho Hasegawa, Yasushi Tomiyama, Sawako Sekine, Mark Sadgrove, and Takuya Hirano,
Spin-echo-based magnetometry with spinor Bose-Einstein condensates,
Physical Review A 88, 031602(R)/1-4 (2013).

[Summary] We demonstrate detection of a weak alternate-current magnetic field by application of the spin-echo technique to F=2 Bose-Einstein condensates. A magnetic field sensitivity of 12 pT/√Hz is attained for an atom number of 5×10^3 at a spatial resolution of 100 μ㎡. Our observations indicate magnetic field fluctuations synchronous with the power supply line frequency. We show that this noise is greatly suppressed by application of a reverse phase magnetic field. Our technique is useful in order to create a stable magnetic field environment, which is an important requirement for atomic experiments which require a weak bias magnetic field.

Jaka Fajar Fatriansyah and *Hiroshi Orihara,
Dynamical properties of nematic liquid crystals subjected to shear flow and magnetic fields: Tumbling instability and non-equilibrium fluctuations,
Physival Review E 88, 012510/1-9 (2013).

[Summary] We investigate the dynamical properties of monodomain nematic liquid crystals under shear flow and magnetic fields on the basis of the Ericksen-Leslie theory. Stable and unstable states appear depending on the magnetic field and the shear rate. The trajectory of the unstable state shows tumbling motion. The phase diagram of these states is plotted as a function of the three components of the magnetic field at a constant shear rate. The phase diagram changes depending on the viscous properties of different types of nematic liquid crystals. In this non-equilibrium steady state, we calculate the correlation function of director fluctuations and the response function, and discuss the non-equilibrium fluctuations and the modified fluctuation dissipation relation in connection with non-conservative forces due to shear flow.